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Ch. 16 The Respiratory System

Ch. 16 The Respiratory System - Ch 16 The Respiratory...

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Ch. 16 The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation I) Overview of Respiratory Function a) Internal respiration  refers to the use of oxygen within mitochondria to make ATP  b) External   is between the atmosphere and body tissues, and encompasses 4 processes i) Pulmonary ventilation, movement of air into and out of the lungs by bulk flow ii) Exchange of O2 and CO2 between lung air spaces and blood by diffusion iii) Transportation of O2 and CO2 b/ween lungs and body tissue by the blood iv) Exchange if O2 and CO2 b/ween blood and tissues by diffusion II) Anatomy of the Respiratory System a) Upper Airways: refers to head and neck air passages, in which both nasal and oral lead to  the  pharynx  (common tube for air and food), which divides into the esophagus and the  larynx  (1 st  structure in resp tract, houses vocal cords) b) The Respiratory Tract: includes everything from pharynx to the lungs i) Conducting zone : air to the lungs (1) starts with the larynx (held open by cartilage in its walls); the opening of the  larynx, called the  glottis , is covered by a flap called the  epiglottis  and leads to  the  trachea , which divides into the left and right  bronchi  that conduct air to each  lung (2) Within the lungs the bronchi divide into smaller tubes called  secondary bronchi  (3 to the right lung, 2 to the left) which further divide into  tertiary bronchi , which  divide again and keep branching until the tube is less than 1mm in diameter,  called a  bronchiole  (no cartilage, capable of collapse), which divide further into  terminal bronchioles , the smallest component of the cond-zone (3) cond zone holds about 150 mL of air and is considered dead space because the  air in it does not participate in gas exchange but serves to humidify and warm air (4) cond-zone is lined by an epithelium that changes in composition as the tubules  become smaller in diameter; the larynx and trachea contain numerous  goblet  cells
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