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Unformatted text preview: Ch. 16 The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation I) Overview of Respiratory Function a) Internal respiration refers to the use of oxygen within mitochondria to make ATP b) External is between the atmosphere and body tissues, and encompasses 4 processes i) Pulmonary ventilation, movement of air into and out of the lungs by bulk flow ii) Exchange of O2 and CO2 between lung air spaces and blood by diffusion iii) Transportation of O2 and CO2 b/ween lungs and body tissue by the blood iv) Exchange if O2 and CO2 b/ween blood and tissues by diffusion II) Anatomy of the Respiratory System a) Upper Airways: refers to head and neck air passages, in which both nasal and oral lead to the pharynx (common tube for air and food), which divides into the esophagus and the larynx (1 st structure in resp tract, houses vocal cords) b) The Respiratory Tract: includes everything from pharynx to the lungs i) Conducting zone : air to the lungs (1) starts with the larynx (held open by cartilage in its walls); the opening of the larynx, called the glottis , is covered by a flap called the epiglottis and leads to the trachea , which divides into the left and right bronchi that conduct air to each lung (2) Within the lungs the bronchi divide into smaller tubes called secondary bronchi (3 to the right lung, 2 to the left) which further divide into tertiary bronchi , which divide again and keep branching until the tube is less than 1mm in diameter, called a bronchiole (no cartilage, capable of collapse), which divide further into terminal bronchioles , the smallest component of the cond-zone (3) cond zone holds about 150 mL of air and is considered dead space because the air in it does not participate in gas exchange but serves to humidify and warm air (4) cond-zone is lined by an epithelium that changes in composition as the tubules become smaller in diameter; the larynx and trachea contain numerous goblet cells...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course APK 2105 taught by Professor Brooks during the Spring '07 term at University of Florida.
- Spring '07