PSY Exam 3 - Ch 6 Thinking and Intelligence I Problem Solving a Well-defined problems = clear specifications of the start state goal state and the

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Ch. 6 Thinking and Intelligence I) Problem Solving a) Well-defined problems  = clear specifications of the start state, goal state, and the  process for reaching the goal state b) Ill-defined problems  = lacks clear specification of anything c) Problem solving is a two-step process:  interpretation, trying to solve d) Fixation  – the inability to create a new interpretation of the problem e) Functional fixedness  – the inability to see that an object can have a function other than  its typical one f) Mental set  – the tendency to use previously successful problem-solving strategies without  considering others that are more appropriate for the current problem;  insight  – a new  way to interpret a problem that immediately gives the solution g) Algorithm  = step by step procedure that guarantees a correct answer to a problem h) Heuristic  = a solution strategy that seems reasonable given past experiences, but holds  not guarantees i) anchoring and adjustment heuristic  in which an initial estimate is used as ana nchore  and then this is adjusted up or down; con is that we put too much importance on the  anchor amount and do not adjust sufficiently j) working backward  = duh k) means-end analysis  in which the distance to the goal state is decreased systematically  by breaking down the problem into subgoals; tower of Hanoi problem where you move  the three donuts II)  Thinking Under Uncertainty a) A probability with .5 is maximally uncertain b) Judging Probability i) Representative heuristic  = rule of thumb for judging the probability of membership in  a category by how well an object resembled that category (1) The conjunction rule for two uncertain events states that the likelihood of overlap  cannot be greater than the likelihood of either of the two events (2) Conjunction fallacy  is incorrectly judging the overlap of two uncertain events to  be more probable than either of the two events (3) Gambler’s fallacy is believing that a chance process is self-correcting in that an  event that has not occurred for a while is more likely to occur (4) We commit such fallacies because the mind categorizes information automatically ii) Availability heuristic  is a heuristic for judging the probability of an event by how  available examples of the event are in memory (thinking of letter r at the first of words  even though r as third letter is really more common) III)  Hypothesis Testing a) Confirmation bias i) In the 2-4-6 task you are given a number sequence and asked to name the rule that the  experimenter used ii) Confirmation bias  = the tendency to seek evidence that confirms ones beliefs (AK47  card flipping example)
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 2012 taught by Professor Dobson during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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PSY Exam 3 - Ch 6 Thinking and Intelligence I Problem Solving a Well-defined problems = clear specifications of the start state goal state and the

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