TARUC,TRISHA_BJC_APPLICATIONS OF STATISTICS ON...

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Taruc, Trisha Mae T. November 23, 2020 BBE4301 – BJC APPLICATIONS OF STATISTICS ON RESEARCH GUIDE TO QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS METHODS QUANTITATIVE DATA Quantitative data is the type of data whose value is measured in the form of numbers or counts, with a unique numerical value associated with each data set. Also known as numerical data , quantitative data further describes numeric variables. This data type can also be defined as a group of quantifiable information that can be used for mathematical computations and statistical analysis which informs real- life decisions. QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION DATA PREPARATION The first stage of quantitative data analysis and interpretation is data preparation, where raw data is converted into something meaningful and readable . There are four steps of data preparation: Step 1: Data Validation This is done so as to find out whether the data collection was done without any bias. The process includes: Testing for fraud by checking whether all the respondents were truly interviewed or not. Screening the respondents to know whether they really met the research criteria. Checking whether the right procedure was followed. Checking whether the investigation is complete. Researchers do this by picking a random sample from a large population.
Step 2: Data Editing Large data sets may inevitably include errors, and that is why they need to be edited. During this process, data is inspected for completeness and consistency. For example, a respondent may leave a field blank, which is a case of incompleteness. In another case, we may have a respondent who answered that he/she has no children also claim in another part that his(er) first child is in high school — this data is inconsistent. Step 3: Coding and Data Entry This is the process of quantifying qualitative data for easy analysis. It involves grouping and assigning values to survey responses. E.g. Male - 1, Female - 2. Step 4: Data Transformation This is the process of changing data into new format. For example, reducing a 5 point likert-type scale into 3 categories. Consider a 5 point likert-type scale with the options very good, good, neutral, bad and very bad. This may be reduced into good, neutral and bad.
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICAL METHOD Researchers make use of descriptive statistics to summarise quantitative data. It is often used when analysing a single variable, and as such is sometimes called univariate analysis. Some common descriptive statistical methods include: Mean: the average of a set of numbers. Median: the middle number of a set of numbers. Mode: most occuring number from a set of numbers. Range: the difference between the highest and lowest numbers from a set of numbers. INFERENTIAL STATISTICAL METHOD This method measures the relationship (similarities and differences) between multiple variables to generate results and infer conclusions. Some examples of inferential statistics include; correlation, regression, ANOVA, etc .