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Forensic Science- Chapter 1

Forensic Science- Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction I...

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Chapter 1: Introduction I. Definition and Scope of Forensic Science A) Forensic Science- application of science to law 1) applies knowledge and technology to the definition and enforcement of laws 2) application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in the criminal justice system B) History and Development of Forensic Science 1) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle a) popular crime detection methods through Sherlock Holmes b) serology, fingerprinting, firearms id 2) Mathieu Orfila a) “father of forensic science” b) Published first scientific treatise on detections of poisons and effects on animals (forensic tox) 3) Alphonse Bertillon a) “father of criminal id” b) First scientific system of personal id c) Anthropometry- body measurements to distinguish individuals d) Fingerprinting replaces anthropometry 4) Francis Galton a) first detective study of fingerprints and classifying them b) Fingerprints- show statistical proof of unique features 5) Leone Latte a) Dr. Karl Landstein discovered blood groups b) Lattes classified blood groups (A, B, AB, O) c) First dried blood stain procedure 6) Calvin Goddard a) comparison microscope for ballistic matches b) results in modern firearms examination 7) Albert Osborn a) developed fundamental principles of document examination, which courts accept b) Question Documents - primary reference for examples 8) Walter McCrone a) world’s preeminent microscopists & advocate of microscopy b) educator to forensic scientists 9) Hans Gross a) first treatise about application of science disciplines to the field of criminal investigations b) Criminal Investigation - detailed what to expect in many fields (botany, physics, chem., etc.) c) Started forensic journal- still serves as medium for reporting improved methods of investigation 10) Edmond Locard
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a) demonstrated Gross’ principles could work in a crime lab b) 1910- Lyons police dept gave him a “lab” c) Founder and director of Institute of Criminalistics at University of Lyons (leading international study/research for forensic science) d) Locard’s Exchange principle 1.) Transfer of materials, fibers, etc. 2.) enforced by well publicized investigations 11) President Hoover a) FBI created in 1932 1.) Most ambitious commitment to forensic science: national lab, scientists, etc. 2.) FBI is now world’s largest forensic lab 3.) Forensic science research and training center as well as developing new science methods/techniques 12) LA PD US’s oldest Forensic Lab (1923) (Vollmer) a) August Vollmer headed first US university institute for criminology and criminalistics @ UC Berkley in 1930s but
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