Assignment 5BUSI 820 Quantitative Research MethodsNovember 27th, 2020

BUSI 820 Quantitative Research Methods Assignment 5Table of ContentsAssignment 53............................................................................................................................A 5.1: Chapter 8, Problem 8.1, Chi-Square and Phi (Or Cramer’s V).3......................................A 5.1.a. Process3..............................................................................................................................................A 5.1.b. Findings4............................................................................................................................................A 5.2: Chapter 8, Problem 8.2, Risk Ratios and Odds Ratios.5......................................................A 5.2.a. Process5..............................................................................................................................................A 4.2.b. Findings7............................................................................................................................................A 5.3: Chapter 8, Problem 8.3, Other Nonparametric Associational Statistics.7..........................A 5.3.a. Process7..............................................................................................................................................A 4.3.b. Findings8............................................................................................................................................A 5.4: Chapter 8, Problem 8.4, Cross-Tabulation and Eta.9..........................................................A 5.4.a. Process9..............................................................................................................................................A 4.4.b. Findings9............................................................................................................................................A 5.5: Application Problem-Crosstabulation and Chi-Square.11..............................................A 5.5 a. Write two research questions and two null hypotheses relating to the following pairs of data, runcrosstabs and interpret the results of chi-square and phi (or Cramer’s V)12..................................................A 5.5. a (1). “gender” and “marital status”12...................................................................................................

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A 5.5 b. Write two research questions and two null hypotheses relating to the following pairs of data, runcrosstabs and interpret the results of chi-square and phi (or Cramer’s V)17..................................................A 5.5. b (1). “mathach” and “calc”17...............................................................................................................

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211/27/2020

BUSI 820 Quantitative Research Methods Assignment 5Assignment 5A 5.1: Chapter 8, Problem 8.1, Chi-Square and Phi (Or Cramer’s V).A 5.1.a. ProcessChi-Square and Phi (or Cramer’s V) for gender and math grades:•First: click on “folder” icon on taskbar in SPSS select “Alternative hsbdataB.sav”file and click on “ok” to input all the data in SPSS and get access to Variable Viewscreen.•Second: click onAnalyzeatVariable Viewscreen➡Descriptive Statistics➡Crosstabs….•Third: Selectmath gradesand move itRowsbox and selectgenderand move it toColumnsbox by clicking thearrow.•Fourth:click onStatisticsin Crosstabs window➡click onChi-squareandPhi andCramer’s V➡Continue•Fifth: click oncellsin Crosstabs window➡click onObservedandExpectedunderCounts andColumnunder Percentages➡Continue•Sixth: click onOK, the output is displayed in figure 8.1.311/27/2020

BUSI 820 Quantitative Research Methods Assignment 5A 5.1.b. FindingsChi-sure testis used to determine if there is a statistically significant relationshipbetween two dichotomous or nominal variables (Morgan et al., 2013). In this case, twocategorical variables are gender and math grades.The Phi (or Carmer’s V) is used to test thestrength of the association between these two categorical variables (Morgan et al., 2013). Theoutput is displayed in figure 8.1. In case processing summary table, N is 75, which indicatesthat all 75 participants have valid data.According to cross tabulation table, out of a total of411/27/2020

BUSI 820 Quantitative Research Methods Assignment 534 males, 24 males (70.6%) had low math grades of less than A-B and 10 males (29.4%) hadhigh math grades of more than A-B.The expected count for males who have low and highmatch grades are 19.9 and 14.1.Among a total of 41 females, 20 females (48.8%) had lowmath grades of less than A-B and 21 females (51.2%) had high math grades of more than A-B.The expected count for females who have low and high match grades are 24.1 and 16.9.Based on these data, it seems a higher percentage of male students had low match grades.Whether these differences is not due to chance could be judged based on the data in the Chi-square tests table.According to the Chi-square test table, the footnote shows that no cell have expectedcounts less than 5, which indicates the valid condition for using chi-square test.P-value is0.056 (>0.05), which indicates that there is no strong evidence to support that males andfemales are differ in having high and low math grades.Chi squared value of 3.645 indicatesno significant difference between these two categories, with one degree of freedom, at thep<.05 threshold (p<.05 threshold = 3.84).The symmetric measures table provides thestrength of the relationship or effect size. The value of statistic should be +/-.50 or more toindicate large relationship or effect size (Morgan et al., 2013) The Phi value of .22 indicatesweak association and small effect size. Thus, the males and females are not significantlydifferent on whether or not they have high or low math grades.

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Chi Square Test, Statistical significance, Chi square distribution, Pearson s chi square test, Effect size