commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

1 9 7 4 g o v e r n m e n ta l f u n c tio n s a n d

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Unformatted text preview: E c o n o m ie s o f s c a le • P u b lic s e c to r c o m p e titio n • P u b lic s e c to r p ric in g F is c a l E q u it y • E c o n o m ic e x te r n a litie s • F is c a l e q u a liz a tio n P o lit ic a l A c c o u n t a b ilit y F A C T O R S Source • A c c e s s a n d c o n tr o l • C itiz e n p a rtic ip a tio n A d m in is tr a tiv e E ffe c tiv e n e s s • L egal adequacy • G e n e ra l-p u rp o s e g o v e rn m e n t • In te r g o v e rn m e n ta l f le x ib ility • G e o g ra p h ic a d e q u a c y • M a n a g e m e n t C a p a b ility O u tc o m e • L e a st-c o • T ru e p re "co nsu m • B est use F e a tu re s of In te r g o v e r n m e n ta l S y s te m s t le v e l o f s e rv ic e fe re n c e s o f e r -v o te rs " o f p u b lic s e rv ic e • A v o id " fre e -r id e r s " • D im in ish e d in te r-ju r is d ic tio n a l d is p a r itie s • J u ris d ic tio n a l a c c o u n ta b ility • L im its ju d ic ia l in te r f e r e n c e S e rv ic e E ff ic ie n t • E g a lita r ia n in S e rv ic e P ro v is io n • E ffe c tiv e in S e rv ic e D e liv e ry • • D if f u s io n o f p o litic a l pow er • P o p u la r s u p p o rt o f g o v e rn m e n ta l s y s te m • T e c h n ic a lly P r o fic ie n t • V e rtic a l a n d h o riz o n ta l c o o p e ra tio n o f g o v e rn m e n ta l u n its • E ffe c tiv e p u b lic a d m in is tra tio n • G re a te r p ro fe s s io n a lis m : A d a p te d f r o m A C IR . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . G o v e r n m e n ta l F u n c tio n s a n d P r o c e s s : L o c a l a n d A r e a w id e . A d v is o r y C o m m is s io n o n In te r g o v e r n m e n ta l R e la tio n s , A - 4 5 . W a s h in g to n , D C . 163 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance TABLE 4A EXPENDITURE SHARES OF CENTRAL AND SUBNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS IN UNITARY AND FEDERAL COUNTRIES Defense C Education L C Health Housing C L C L Police L C Recreation L C Welfare Subsidies C L C L Other L C L Albania 100% 0% 20% 80% 70% 30% 68% 32% 100% 0% 65% 35% 81% 19% 63% 37% 75% 25% Azerbaijan 100% 0% 17% 83% 16% 84% 2% 98% 100% Belarus 98% 2% 18% 82% 21% 79% 0% 100% Bulgaria 100% Croatia 100% 98% Czech Republic 0% 55% 45% 99% 1% 100% 0% 84% 16% 81% 19% 42% 58% 97% 3% 92% 8% 74% 26% 98% 2% 65% 35% 94% 6% 90% 10% 82% 18% 0% 81% 19% 99% 1% 63% 37% 99% 1% 31% 69% 99% 2% 82% 18% 95% 5% 23% 77% 83% 17% 35% 65% 93% 0% 39% 61% 44% 56% 32% 68% 5% 95% 69% 31% 1% 54% 46% 64% 36% 7% 98% 2% 41% 59% Denmark 100% 0% 53% 47% Estonia 100% 0% 45% 55% 97% 3% 1% 99% 99% 1% 61% 39% 91% Iceland 100% 0% 47% 53% 99% 1% 31% 69% 92% 8% 45% 55% 78% 22% 82% 18% 78% 22% Kazakhstan 86% 14% 22% 78% 57% 43% Latvia 99% 88% 12% 43% 57% 46% 54% 65% 35% 73% 27% 0% 100% 9% 56% 44% 62% 38% 75% 25% 55% 45% 73% 27% 66% 34% 79% 21% 1% 28% 72% 95% 5% 20% 80% 93% 7% 53% 47% 94% 6% 91% 9% 66% 34% 0% 100% 97% 3% 61% 39% 91% 9% 99% 1% 78% 22% 0% 100% 0% 77% 23% 99% 1% 79% 21% 99% 1% 100% 0% 91% 7% 57% 43% Lithuania 100% 0% 30% 70% 98% 2% Mauritius 100% 0% 100% Moldova 100% 0% 32% 68% 40% 60% 23% 77% 85% 15% 64% 36% 95% 5% 93% Mongolia 100% 0% 28% 72% 13% 87% 38% 62% 51% 49% 61% 39% 99% 1% 31% 69% 56% 44% Norway 100% 0% 37% 63% 23%...
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