commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

0 102 202 241 684 779 grant outlays in constant

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Unformatted text preview: y not new. We have a long history of state and local government autonomy, emanating from the US Constitution, and in particular from its approval of concurrent powers to tax and spend. Clearly the reality of decentralization in the US, while interesting, has not matched the rhetoric, and its potential problems may only emerge when exposed to a long-term economic slowdown. 32 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance ANNEX: TABLES TABLE 1 INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS (IGR) TRENDS, FISCAL YEARS 1960-98 1960 Total Great Society 1964 1969 NEW FEDERALISM 1970 1977 New Partnership Federalism 1978 1981 397 (’67) 442 (’75) 492 (’78) Number of grant programs 132 Grant outlays in current dollars (billions) $7.0 $10.2 $20.2 $24.1 $68.4 $77.9 Grant outlays in constant 1992 dollars (billions) $33.4 $45.8 $65.8 $77.8 $149.7 Federal aid as a percentage of state and local outlays (own source) 23.4% 25.2% 29.4% 30.9% Federal aid (current dollars) as a percentage of total Federal aid 7.6% 8.6% 11.0% Grants for payments to individuals as a percentage of total Federal aid 35.7% 35.0% 35.9% Forms of grantsa 1980 Total Reagan Federalism 1982 1989 Bush Years 1990 1993 539 404 492 492 593 633 (’95) 660+ (’97) $94.8 $91.4 $88.1 $122.0 $135.4 $193.6 $210.6 $250.9 $159.5 $146.4 $155.7 $127.4 $136.2 $144.7 $188.6 $200.5 $215.9 41.2% 47.0% 39.6% 43.0% 37.8% 26.6% 26.0% 31.5% 31.7% 31.2% (’97) 12.3% 16.7% 17.0% 14.0% 15.5% 11.8% 10.7% 10.8% 13.7% 14.4% 14.6% 36.3% 33.2% 31.7% 39.9% 35.7% 44.0% 54.3% 55.9% 62.3% 62.5% 5B, G, 2T 426C (’75) 492C 4B, G, 534C 12B, G, 396C 14B, 478C 15B (’93) 578C 15B, 633C (’95) 24B, 640Ce 24.2% 14.5% (’88) 11.2% (’92) 11.4% (’94) 11.56% (’97) e 11 (‘94-’95) 6 (‘9697) e 132C 2B,3T rest C Percentage of aid bypassing the states 8 12 24 (’78) 29% (’78) 23.6% Major IGR regulations 2 7 (‘61-’68) 23 (‘69-’76) 5 (‘76-’80) 37 (’80) 21 (‘81-’88) 6 (‘89-’92) 89 (’59) 47 (‘60-’69) 108 (‘70-’79) 344 (’80) 100 (‘80-’89) 25 (‘90-’91) Federal preemptions Clinton Era 1994 1998 5B, G 7 (’93-’96) From David B. Walker, THE REBIRTH OF FEDERALISM (New York: Chatham House, 2000) (Table Int-2) Sources: Adapted from Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism, 1985-86 edition, M-146, p. 19; 1989 M163-II, pp. 18-24; David B. Walker, Towards a Functioning Federalism (1961), 100-131; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Government Finances, 1988-90 editions; ACIR, Characteristics of Federal Grants-in-Aid Programs to State and Local Government, M-188 (January 1994), p. 1; ACIR, Federal Statutory Preemption of State and Local Authority. A 121 (Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, September 1992): 7, 9; 1992 data from OMB, Budget Baselines Historical Data and Alternatives for the Future, January 1993. ACIR, Characteristics of Federal Grants-in-Aid Programs to State and Local Governments: Grants Funded in FY 1995, M195 (June 1995), 3; G. Ross Stephens, University of Missouri-Kansas City, private co...
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