commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

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Unformatted text preview: arly, the state government expends only 33.1 percent of the total in California, but 77.6 percent in Hawaii. 20 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance TABLE 8 STATE SHARE OF STATE & LOCAL REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES, 1998 General revenue from own sources United States Total Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgie Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri 56.1 60.5 81.9 55.9 67.0 56.5 49.4 65.4 81.0 48.7 51.7 78.6 62.0 52.1 57.2 58.4 56.4 69.1 59.1 60.0 56.7 67.5 65.2 59.3 61.1 57.4 Direct general exenditure 41.7 48.7 62.8 37.8 54.1 33.1 37.6 54.9 64.4 36.3 42.0 77.6 43.8 39.7 42.3 45.1 40.0 55.9 50.2 54.2 45.9 55.8 38.4 39.4 47.5 45.7 General revenue from own sources Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming 62.1 53.8 52.7 46.9 54.2 73.1 44.5 59.9 64.6 54.4 62.0 57.9 58.5 64.0 58.4 55.8 52.4 49.6 63.5 61.3 58.8 59.0 69.0 63.2 56.6 Direct general exenditure 54.4 44.2 32.4 50.8 42.2 54.2 36.3 43.6 54.7 41.0 46.3 42.7 44.6 58.3 51.0 51.9 44.3 39.8 52.8 59.8 44.5 44.2 58.5 36.3 41.4 A significant shift in education finance has occurred, though kindergarten through twelfth grade education is primarily a locally provided service across the U.S. Overall, states have gone from financing one-third of public elementary and secondary education expenditures at the end of World War II to financing about one-half of spending today (these 6 expenditures are treated as local in Table 7). These expenditures are categorized as local spending, but have placed additional revenue pressure on the states. A series of court rulings regarding states’ constitutional responsibility for education is one reason for the increasing state role. The constitutional requirements differ across states, but court challenges have been raised in at least 43 states (see Evans, Murray, and Schwab, 1997). The challenges normally examine whether the constitution makes education a fundamental right, and if so, are differentials in service levels between school districts permissible given the degree of constitutional responsibility held by the state. The courts have ruled in at least 16 states that the existing provision of education is not constitutionally acceptable. The remedy has normally been greater state finance, but with local governments still responsible for the expenditures. A controversial issue is whether greater state funding has increased or decreased total education spending. The early research, based mostly on California, concluded that centralization of education finance reduced spending. However, the more recent work suggests that total education spending is rising with centralization (Evans, Murray, and Schwab, 1997). The notion is that per pupil spending is increased for the lowest spe...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2013 for the course ECON 220 taught by Professor Paulo during the Spring '13 term at University of Liverpool.

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