commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

6 05 denmark belarus finland 04 lithuania sweden

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Unformatted text preview: the level of decentralization in unitary and federal countries, respectively. 15 The figures for subnational governments' expenditure share are from GFS used in Figure 1 and the size variables are from World Development Indicators of the World Bank. 157 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance FIGURES 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B, 7A, 7B Figure-5 B: Decentralization and GDP (Unitary Countries) Figure-5 A: Decentralization and GDP (Federal Countries) Argentina 0,6 Decentralization (Subnational Governments' Expenditure Share) Decentralization (Subnational Governments' Expenditure Share) 0.6 0.5 India Canada Switzerland Germany 0.4 Brazil 0.3 United States y = 0.1676+0.0331x R2 = 0.13 Spain Austria South Africa Mexico 0.2 Bolivia Malaysia Peru 0.1 0 2 3 4 5 0,5 Denmark Finland Belarus Sweden 0,4 Lithuania Norway Poland 0,3 Hungary France Italy Ireland Czech rep. 0,2 Croatia Guatemala Kenya y = - 0.738 + 0.2567x Costa Rica R2 = 0.4299 GDP (in logs) Portugal Isreal 0,1 0 2 3 4 5 GDP (in logs) F ig ur e- 6 A : D ecent r ali z at io n and Po p ulat io n ( F ed er al C o unt r ies) 0, 7 0, 6 A r gent i na 0, 5 0, 4 I Canada Swi t zer l and Ger many B r azi l 0, 3 Uni t ed St at es A us t r i a 0, 2 y = - 0. 2706 +0. 0745x 0, 1 Sout h A f r i c a Spai n M exi c o M al ays i a B ol i v i a R 2 = 0 . 19 P er u 0 6 6, 5 7 7, 5 8 8, 5 Decentralization (Subnational Governments' Expenditure Share in Total) Figure-6 B: Decentralization and Population (Unitary Countries) 0.6 0.5 Denmark Belarus Finland 0.4 Lithuania Sweden Poland Norway 0.3 Hungary Ireland y = 0.1517 + 0.0168x Italy Czech Rep. R2 = 0.25 0.2 France Croatia Portugal Israel 0.1 Guatemala Costa Rica Kenya 0 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 Population (in logs) Po p ul at i o n ( in l o g s) F i g ur e- 7 A : D ecent r al iz at i o n and Land A r ea ( F ed er al C o unt r i es ) F i g ur e- 7 B : D ecent r ali z at io n and Land A r ea ( U ni t ar y C o unt r i es) 0,6 Ar gen t in a 0,6 0,5 0,5 Den mar k I n dia Fin lan d Swit zer lan d 0,4 Belar us Sweden 0,4 Ger man y Nor way Lit huan ia 0,3 0,3 Fr an ce Polan d Hun gar y I t aly I r elan d Czech Rep. Spain 0,2 0,2 Sout h Af r ica Aust r ia Cr oat ia M exico M alaysia y = 0 . 0 4 14 + 0 . 0 4 2 x I sr ael Bolivia R2 = 0 . 5 1 Por t ugal 0,1 y = - 0 . 14 5 3 + 0 . 0 8 0 8 x Per u 0,1 Guat emala R2 = 0 . 6 3 Cost a Rica Ken ya 0 4 0 4 4,5 5 5,5 Land A r ea ( i n lo g s) 158 6 6,5 4,5 5 5,5 Land A r ea ( in l o g s) 6 6,5 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance 4. HOW TO DECENTRALIZE? The transfer of authority and responsibility over public functions from the central government to subordinate or quasiindependent government organizations covers a broad range of topics (World Bank, 1999). There is no prescribed set of rules governing the decentralization process that apply to all countries. Decentralization takes different forms in different countries, depending on the objectives driving the change in structure of government. In general, decentralization of public policy making power is transfer of legal and political authority for planning projects, making decisions and managem...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2013 for the course ECON 220 taught by Professor Paulo during the Spring '13 term at University of Liverpool.

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