commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

At the same time act 59 and even more its

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Unformatted text preview: 247 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance DIAGRAM 2 SCENARIO CALLING FOR THE “RESTORATION OF FINANCIAL DECENTRALIZATION” 248 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance THE PROCESS OF DECENTRALISATION IN ITALY: A FOCUS ON REGIONAL GOVERNMENTS By Laura Raimondo 1. OVERVIEW Notwithstanding the very strong historic tradition of great and prosperous municipalities, the democratic season of Italy after fascism was based fundamentally on a centralized State. During the post-war reconstruction period and the economic miracle of the sixties Italy concentrated on recovering from the II World War, reducing the industrial gap of the country, providing credible economic answers to the demands that the generation born in the thirties was making of the new republic and democratic State. The Constitution of 1948 had introduced among its fundamental principles (art.5 and Titolo V and art.117) an initial roadmap towards larger local autonomies, defining on the one hand those competencies of the central State that could not be transferred or delegated, and on the other competencies that had a regional nature or that could be totally decentralized. It was on these latter that public action, based on territorial and regional perspectives, should be designed and carried out. The Constitution allowed for the creation of regional governments through legislation. Up until the early 1970s, however, only five “special regions” (Regioni a Statuto Speciale) were created (Sicilia, Sardegna, Valle d’Aosta, Trentino-Alto Adige and Friuli). The introduction of the remaining “ordinary” regions required specific legislation and was delayed until 1975-77. The “special regions” benefited from a much more autonomous status, at least as far as the legislative power and competencies were concerned. Numerous contradictions characterised the structure of powers, functions, competencies and resources at different levels of government operating on the whole territory. While regional governments were granted legislative powers in important fields provided by the Constitution, the inconsistency between taxing authority and spending authority limited regional autonomy and accountability. It was only in the nineties that the roadmap towards decentralisation was effectively implemented. Act 142 of 1990 dealing with the system of local autonomies gave new powers to municipalities and provinces to adopt their own statutes and to define their organisation. The act also clarified the role and functions of mountain communities and instituted metropolitan areas connected to the principal national poles of urban aggregation. These centres were given territorial planning and network service functions and tasks related to economic development. The main political project towards a decentralized State is however contained in Act 59/97 which, using an wide interpretation of the Constitution, redefines and wholly re-organises the State in all its administrative functions, transferring or attributing to the "right" territorial and administrative level the competency for administrative functions and the a...
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