Unformatted text preview: rland : A Survey of Constitutional Issues, Budget Responsibility and
EBEL, Robert D., and Serdar YILMAZ, “Concept of fiscal Decentralization and Worldwide Overview.”
FOX, William F., “Decentralization in the United States: Where Has the Country Headed?”
GALÍ, Pere, ” The Funding of Autonomous Communities in Spain.”
GÉRARD, Marcel, “Fiscal Federalism in Belgium.”
GILBERT, Guy, “The Finances of Decentralized Authorities and Financial Relations between Authorities at Different
Levels in France: Trends and Outlook.“
HEALD, David, “Decentralization in Some Non-Federal Countries: The Case of the United Kingdom.”
RAIMONDO, Laura, “The Process of Decentralisation in Italy: A Focus on Regional Governments.”
SPAHN, Paul Bernd, “Maintaining Fiscal Equilibrium in a Federation: Germany.”
VERDONCK, Magali, and Géraldine VANDERSTICHELE, “The Lambermont Agreement: Why and How?”
WALLIN, Bruce A., ”Forces Behind Centralization and Decentralization in the United States.”
WÄLTI, Sonja, “Balance and Imbalance in the Swiss federal system.” Other documents:
BIRD, Richard M. (1993a), “Threading the Fiscal Labyrinth: Some Issues in Fiscal Decentralization,” National Tax
Journal 46, 207-227.
BIRD, Richard M. (1993b), “A Comparative Perspective on Federal Finance,” in Keith G. BANTING, Douglas M.
BROWN and Thomas J. COURCHENE (eds.), The Future of Fiscal Federalism, Institute of Intergovernmental Relations,
School of Policy Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston.
BIRD, Richard M. (2000), “Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations: Universal Principles, Local Applications,” International
Studies Program Working Paper 00-2, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta.
COMMISSION ON FISCAL IMBALANCE (2001), Intergovernmental Fiscal Arrangements: Germany, Australia, Belgium,
Spain, United States, Switzerland, Background Paper for the International Symposium on Fiscal Imbalance, 13 and 14
September, Québec. 13 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance DECENTRALIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES:
WHERE HAS THE COUNTRY HEADED?
By William F. Fox 1. INTRODUCTION The United States, like many countries, has engaged in an ongoing debate aboutthe appropriate size of government and
the best assignment of expenditures and revenues across levels of government. Answers to these questions surely vary
over time. Early U.S. history was characterized by very decentralized government, and the era during and immediately
following World War II showed evidence of centralization. The issue at hand is whether the centralization pattern has
been reversed. A strong case can be made that government in the U.S. has decentralized in recent years, but the
evidence is certainly mixed.
Decentralization of the U.S. government structure is apparent over the past 50 years in the increasing shares of
expenditures and revenues that are housed at the state/local level. But, the federal revenue share has fallen because of
View Full Document