commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

In 1994 the ratio stood at 331 a comparison of the

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Unformatted text preview: , “the dominant socioeconomic web of Wallonia is rather unfavourable to growth” (Gérard, 1999, translated) since “a socio-political structure in which social struggles are rooted in tradition is hardly attractive to capital” (Van Hamme, 1998, our translation) and “this historic process explains that in the old industrial zones the pool of potential entrepreneurs has been eroded by premature salarization in big industries” (ibid.) 4 176 The right to vote was extended to European Union nationals in respect of local elections, starting with the communal elections in 2000. Commission on Fiscal Imbalance TABLE 1 PER CAPITA GDP IN THE REGIONS OF BELGIUM (European Union mean: 15 = 100) Walloon Region 1955 1965 1975 1985 1996* 103 93 90 87 90 Flemish Region 92 93 106 106 116 Brussels-Capital Region 155 163 161 167 174 Belgium 103 100 107 106 113 *1996 data include the new German Länder. Source: Capron (2000). However, Gérard (1999, translated) goes on to say that “the levels of well-being measured in terms of poverty and inequality are similar and place Wallonia and Brussels, like Belgium as a whole, among the least poor, most egalitarian countries in Europe and the world. In 1994, monetary poverty, i.e. the relative importance of households having at their disposal at best half of the median income, i.e. 37,815 BEF (937.4 €) monthly for a household with one child and 17,200 BEF (426.4 €) for an isolated individual, represented 4.7% of households.5 […] As for income distribution, it is often evaluated using an interquartile ratio of the income of the wealthiest quarter of the population and the poorest quarter. In 1994, the ratio stood at 3.31. A comparison of the Regions reveals rates of 3.3% in Brussels, 4.6% in Flanders and 5.5% in Wallonia and, based on 1995 fiscal data, 5.2% in Flanders and 5.9% in Wallonia. However, the interquartile ratio is higher in Brussels than in Flanders and in Wallonia, i.e. 3.44, 3.31 and 3.23, respectively. […] These figures rank Belgium with the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, among the European countries with the lowest poverty 6 7 rates. The same is true with respect to inequality: Belgium and Sweden are the most egalitarian countries. […] Belgian’s good performance, irrespective of Regions, stems from highly efficient social protection that provides substantial replacement income and quality health care services that are available to everyone at very low individual cost.” Consequently, it is understandable that French-speaking, especially Walloon, political leaders especially value the unity 8 of this social protection, especially social security, but also the centralized determination of salaries and a common perspective on the progressive graduation of income tax, while the Flemish representatives regularly propose its partial defederalization. Social security causes implicit transfers from the Flemish Region to the Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions: “from the studies of Van Rompuy and Verheierstraeten (1979) u...
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