commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

Since the conclusion of the 1993 accords the fourth

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Unformatted text preview: eral jurisdiction, although this point is regularly called into question by some. The Constitution does not specifically define the Regions’ fields of jurisdiction, which may be modified through legislation adopted by special majority. According to the list established by the Conseil Supérieur des Finances (1999), the Regions assume the following main fields of jurisdiction: ♦ economic policy, including assistance in respect of investment and employment; ♦ employment; ♦ transportation; ♦ public works; ♦ the financing of subordinate powers; ♦ scientific policy pertaining to their fields of jurisdiction; 13 14 15 180 Conseil Supérieur des Finances (1999). In 1993, the social and health-related fields of jurisdiction of the French Community were transferred to the Walloon region as regards exercising of such jurisdiction within the region’s territory, and to the French Community commission (Cocof) in the Brussels-Capital region (a sub-entity of the region, whose executive branch comprises members of the regional executive branch) with respect to the exercising of such jurisdiction within the territory of the Brussels region, which also assumed the French-speaking Brussels Community’s fields of jurisdiction in the realms of tourism, school transportation, vocational training, school buildings and sports infrastructure. Moreover, the Brussels-Capital region assumes the former fields of jurisdiction of the agglomeration of Brussels and, from the standpoint of its territory, the fields of jurisdiction assumed by the former Province of Brabant. Commission on Fiscal Imbalance ♦ energy; ♦ wastewater treatment and the protection and distribution of water; ♦ policy governing waste and environmental protection; ♦ monuments and sites. Since the conclusion of the 1993 accords, the fourth stage mentioned earlier, the following fields of jurisdiction have been added: ♦ foreign trade; ♦ agriculture; ♦ international relations from the standpoint of the Regions’ fields of jurisdiction. The Conseil Supérieur des Finances notes that with regard to agriculture and foreign trade, in particular, these fields of jurisdiction are shared with the federal government. The reform of 2001 has altered this division of powers in favour of the Regions. It should be noted that scientific policy is regional in areas that fall under the jurisdiction of the Regions. In concrete terms, basic research is the responsibility of the Communities and, partly, of the federal government, while applied research (or technology) is the responsibility of the Regions. The report of the Conseil Supérieur des Finances mentioned earlier proposes a presentation of various fields of jurisdiction using fiscal federalism diagrams in the manner of Musgrave (1959) and Oates (1991), in particular the breakdown of allocative, distributive, stabilizing and incentive functions. 4. FINANCING OF FEDERATED ENTITIES The financing mechanism in respect of the Communities and Regions resulting from the special fina...
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