commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

Table 5 state aid to local governments selected years

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Unformatted text preview: .0 From David D. Walker, THE REBIRTH OF FEDERALISM (New York: Chatham House, 2000) (Table 8-12) Sources: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism, vol. 2, Revenues and Expenditures, 1992, M-180-II (Washington, D.C., September 1992), 61. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism, vol. 2, Revenues and Expenditures (Washington, D.C., October 1997), 39. Includes natural resources and the environment, agriculture, energy, veterans' benefits and service, administration of justice and national defense. TABLE 5 STATE AID TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, SELECTED YEARS, 1964-96 Year Total (Millions) Education (%) Public Welfare (%) Highways (%) General Support (%) Other (%) 1964 1969 1974 1978 1981 1985 1988 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 $12,968 24,779 45,600 65,815 91,307 119,608 149,009 175,028 186,469 201,313 214,095 222,635 240,978 252,102 59.1 60.0 59.4 61.0 62.7 62.7 64.0 62.5 62.3 62.1 61.3 61.0 61.5 62.3 16.3 17.7 16.2 13.0 12.1 10.6 11.9 12.4 13.1 12.9 14.6 13.8 12.8 12.4 11.8 8.5 7.0 5.8 5.2 5.8 4.7 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2 8.1 8.6 10.5 10.4 10.5 10.3 10.0 9.5 9.1 8.1 8.3 8.1 8.2 7.9 4.8 5.2 6.8 9.8 9.5 11.4 9.5 11.2 11.1 12.7 11.5 12.8 13.2 13.2 From David B. Walker, THE REBIRTH OF FEDERALISM (New York: Chatham House, 2000) (Table 8-8) Sources: Adapted from Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism, vol. 2, Revenues and Expenditures, 1993, M-185-II (Washington, D.C., September 1993), 41. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism, vol. 2, Revenues and Expenditures (Washington, D.C., October 1997), 44. Council of State Governments, The Book of States, 1998-99, vol. 32 (Lexington, Ky.), 433. 36 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance MAINTAINING FISCAL EQUILIBRIUM IN A FEDERATION: GERMANY By Paul Bernd Spahn The modern German federation was established only after World War II—for the Western states in 1949—, and half a century after its inception it appears to be strong and more robust than ever—despite the incident of unification with the formerly sot East. Germany is widely seen as having acquired functioning democratic institutions and a reliable political system that has even influenced the design of intergovernmental relations at the supranational level in Europe. Nevertheless, at the beginning of a new millennium, Germany—perhaps more so than many other nations—finds herself at the junction of a historic choice between solidarity and subsidiarity. This is because, over the years, subsidiarity, and hence regional diversity, has been sacrificed consistently in favor of national solidarity. Solidarity has now attained a level at which the flexibility and responsiveness of subnational governments, notably the states, is seen to have been impaired severely. In particular, interregional equalization appears to be grossly inflated—conspicuously after German unification—, an assertion which has even found the support of the Constitutional Co...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2013 for the course ECON 220 taught by Professor Paulo during the Spring '13 term at University of Liverpool.

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