commission on fiscal imbalance 合集

Under the federative formula funding for

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Unformatted text preview: onship between the degree of territorial fragmentation and local financial autonomy in the European nations (Chart 2). All things considered, the situation in France is paradoxical in that there is strong financial autonomy and such autonomy is exercised in highly fragmented, overlapping territories. Territorial competition is exercised between very unequal authorities from the standpoint of financial wealth, an inequality that is exacerbated by the weight of local taxes and distorted by the distinctive features of the local taxation system. 3. INSTITUTIONS IN THE FRENCH “MODEL” OF DECENTRALIZED PUBLIC FINANCES 3.1. The map of local authorities is … fragmented and overlapping ♦ The map of local authorities encompasses three levels, or even four if account is taken of the intercommunal level. ♦ As of January 1, 1999, metropolitan France (with a population of 60 million), had 36 564 communes, 96 departments and 21 regions (plus Corsica). ♦ There are an additional 215 communes, four departments and four regions in the French overseas departments and territories. ♦ Communal linkage is exceptionally refined. The 36 communes with 100 000 or more inhabitants account for 15% of the population; the 841 communes with 10 000 or more inhabitants account for 49.5% of the population. Symmetrically, the 35 710 communes with fewer than 10 000 inhabitants, of which … 28 183 have fewer than 1 000 inhabitants, account for 16% of the population. The average size of French communes is thus small, the lowest in the EU member countries, i.e. 1578 inhabitants. ♦ The regional division is also atypical in the European context. The French regions are very disparate in terms of population, i.e. 10.6 million in the Île-de-France region, 5.3 million in the Rhône-Alpes region, 4.3 million in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region, 4 million in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, and, in contrast, 0.7 million in the Limousin region and 0.25 million in Corsica. ♦ Communal fragmentation makes necessary the voluntary grouping of basic authorities with a view to jointly managing amenities or elaborating economic development and urban planning projects on a more relevant scale than the communal level. ♦ Voluntary groups of communes can take an associative or federative form. ♦ In an associative group, the communes (municipal councils) transfer to the group decision-making and executive power in respect of the jurisdictions transferred in exchange for a financial contribution and levy additional taxes to this end. In 1999, 228 Commission on Fiscal Imbalance there were 18 051 intercommunal syndicates (14 614 syndicats intercommunaux à vocation unique (SIVU), 2221 syndicats intercommunaux à vocation multiple (SIVOM), and 1216 mixed syndicates. Under the federative formula, funding for intercommunal public establishments comes from substitutive taxation levied at a single rate throughout the intercommunal zone. This is true of the nine syndicats d’agglomération nouvelle, 305 districts, 12 communautés urbaines, 1348 communautés de communes and five communautés de villes. ♦ Groups have developed regularly since their creation. The total number of groups has risen from 10 636 in 1972 to approximately 20 000 today. The pace of establishment of the groups has been uneven over time, according to the formulas proposed by legislators, and in geographic terms (intercommunal groups are more common in the western part of Fr...
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