study guide - exam 1

study guide - exam 1 - Jonathan Wons: BIOL 132 - exam 1...

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Jonathan Wons: BIOL 132 --- exam 1 study guide (1) assigned reading in PHK: -end of each chapter has a ‘summary’ – read these - focus only on material covered in class -again, only for material covered in class, look at, try to answer questions in ‘pink boxes’ in each chapter (2) in Schaum’s outlines in microbiology (packaged with PHK text) Lecture 1: microbial diversity, prokaryotic, eukaryotic cells, taxonomy Similarities, differences between pro- and eukaryotic cells [see also chapt 4] Presence or absence of organelles, structure of cell walls, organization of DNA a genus; DNA hybridization strains>species>genera Domain>Phylum>Class>Order>Family>Genus>Species>Strains taxonomy, system of classification, what are phenetic vs phyletic systems Phenetic = based on phenotypic characteristics: Classical (Linaeun: morphological, physiological, biochemical) and Artificial (Gram stains, cell shape or motility, glucose as carbon source) Phyletic = Natural (phylogenic) and molecular systems = based on evolutionary relationships - ssrRNA: some regions = stable; some variable = stem loop; some sequences conserved in phylogenetic group - G + C: DNA analysis, m.p. analysis (G/C = more temp., Tm.= midpoint), variation in genus < 10% - DNA hybridization: sequence homology (bind nonradioactive dsDNA to nitrocellulose fiber [excess], denature >Tm, incubate filter w/ radioactive ssDNA [limiting], measure rad. DNA bound to fiber) - High homology = ~ bind @ 10-15 deg. Below Tm, ~ perfect complementary - Same species > 70 % homology; same genus = 30-60% -DNA sequence: Multilocus sequence typing (mlst) = sequence of multiple genes that evolved rapidly; genomic fingerprinting = differences in restriction endonuclease factors (fragments, RFLPs); protein (a.a.) sequence recognize which is genera, species, strains if given bacterial examples 1 st letter genus capitalized, species lowercase, both italicized, then strain numbers strains = descended from signal pure culture, varies within species; biovars = differ biochemically and physiologically; morphovars = differ morphologically; serovars= differ in antigenic properties; mutant = genetic phylum proteobacteria is gram (-); 5 classes, know/recognize names of pathogenic genera 538 gen.>2000 spec., Based on rRNA;α(1)=rickettsia, brucella;β(2)=Neisseria;γ(3)=Vibrio; E.coli; Pseudomonas; Salmonella; Shigella; Yersinia; Haemophilus;δ(4)=no pathogens;ε(5)=campylobacter, helicobacter 3 domains of life, names; recognize which if given an example Archaea: Phylum = Crenarchaeota, Euryarcaota Bacteria: Phylum spirochaetes: gram neg, genera = treponema, borrelia Phylum chlamydiae: gram neg, obligate intracellular parasite Phylum firmicutes: gram pos, low G+C (mycoplasm in here b/c low G+C, but gram neg [no cell wall]) - Class 1 = Clostridium – genus = Clostridium - Class 2 = Mollicutes – genus = Mycoplasm - Class 3 = Bacilli – genus = Bacillus, streptococcus, staphyloccus, listeria Phylum actinobacteria; gram pos, high G+C (>50%);genus = mycobacterium, streptomyces(antibiotics)
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL 132A taught by Professor Press during the Spring '08 term at Brandeis.

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study guide - exam 1 - Jonathan Wons: BIOL 132 - exam 1...

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