study guide - exam 2

study guide - exam 2 - 1 Jonathan Wons: BIOL 132 - exam 2...

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Jonathan Wons: BIOL 132 --- exam 2 study guide The second exam covers innate and adaptive immunity; epidemiology and pathogenesis; immune evasion; and vaccines. There is too much content to list everything you should ‘know’. Be sure you have an overview understanding; then narrow your focus to specific details. You need to memorize key facts and details, and you need to understand (and be able to merge) concepts. In some questions, you will need to recognize and/or name things [associate name to an activity, product, cell, etc.] In other questions, you will need to provide details – for ‘important’ concepts, mechanisms, etc. Some examples of important concepts [but there are more than these]: INNATE Why is innate immunity important? o It is our body’s first defense and barrier to pathogen/infection. Adaptive immunity doesn’t kick in right away, so we need innate immunity to keep us safe. How does innate immunity know a microbe is present? o PAMPs through PRR… through the complement pathway… chemokines / cytokines. What innate immunity mechanisms contribute to pathogen clearance, how do they work? o Skin, secretions = antimicrobial agents (lysozyme, lacteroferrin, lactoperoxidase) o Antimicrobial peptides (cationic- disrupts bacterial plasma membranes) o Microbiota secrete bacteriocins (L-antibiotics) o Complement pathway (adaptive/lectin) lysis via MAC o Neutralization/opsonization o NK cells o Type I IFN blocks viral replication Which innate mechanisms clear bacteria; which are important for viruses? o Bacteria Bacteriocins Complement Neutralization Secretions o Viruses NK cells Type I IFN How does innate immunity contribute to adaptive immunity? o It primes the adaptive immunity. Innate produces IFN which blocks viral replication but also increases number of MHC class I. o Macrophages need helper T cells to kill some pathogens that are intracellular. ADAPTIVE Which types of adaptive immunity clear extracellular vs intracellular microbes? mechanism details? o Extracellular 1
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Produce antibodies NK cells (ADCC) B cells produce antibodies o Intracellular Classical complement pathway (IgM) phagocytosis Humoral/Cell mediated immunity T cell kill cell / help macrophage kill cell What are similarities, differences between VDJ recombination and class switch recombination? o VDJ recombination makes changes in the variable region; while CSR makes changes in the constant region. o VDJ has loss of genes inbetween; while CSR uses the loop splicing technique. o CSR requires AID gene (activation induced cytidine deaminase which convers dC to dU in DNA) o In CSR the rearranged variable region moves by DNA recombination next to the constant region gene. Why is class switch recombination important from the perspective of host response to
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study guide - exam 2 - 1 Jonathan Wons: BIOL 132 - exam 2...

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