Amendments - Amendments First ten amendments are called the...

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Amendments First ten amendments are called the Bill of Rights 1 st  Amendment 5 Rights Total 1) Speech o “Abridging the freedom of speech”- restrict, limit, cut down, deny o Schenk vs. U.S., 1919 “Clear and Present Danger Doctrine” Basic rule of thumb used throughout 20 th  Century to  determine what is free speech You can say whatever you want, as long as it doesn’t cause  obvious and immediate danger o Yates vs. United States, 1957 Court overruled conviction of several members of the  American Communist Party Court stated a person could be condemned by the state only  if their speech actually invited violent or dangerous action by  others o Brandenburg vs. Ohio, 1969 Involved  black activist After every speech given, a riot would follow When he came to Ohio, the police wouldn’t let him speak Supreme Court ruled you cannot do this- you cannot stop a  speech you think will cause violent action o Tinker v. Des Moines Community School District, 1969 Very important because taking free speech to include  freedom of expression and symbolic speech Students wanted to protest Vietnam War and came to school  wearing black armbands, expelled Court ruled that it was not ok to do that because the school  just didn’t like their political view- not OK, have a right to do  it because not disrupting orderly function of the school o Cohen vs. California, 1971 Protects freedom of expression even if words used are  offensive to some within community “One man’s vulgarity is another man’s lyric” Cohen said “Fuck the Draft”, but it showed his feeling of the  war and depth of expression, so it is protected o Johnson vs. Texas, 1987 Court said you can burn the American Flag as a form of  political protest 2) Religion
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o Cannot pass a law abridging your freedom of religion o Some religious practices restricted if they violate other laws o Cannot declare a state religion- separation of church and state o Engle vs. Vitale, 1962 Court ruled students cannot be forced to pray in the  classroom Freedom from religion Ban on prayers in public schools o Doe vs. Santa Fe Independent School District, 2001 Can use loudspeaker at graduation, but not at sporting events Applies to all public schools o Stone vs. Graham, 1980 o Lemon vs. Kurtzman, 1971 Establish “lemon test” to determine whether a law violates  the clause of freedom of religion Faith Based Initiatives (Bush administration) Federal government giving money to church groups  with the assumption they will use it to aid the poor. However, many of these groups are also trying to 
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course GOVT 100 taught by Professor May during the Fall '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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Amendments - Amendments First ten amendments are called the...

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