ANT101 – Lecture 12

277 overview o are they closely related to us yes o

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Unformatted text preview: st uniformly (hand, arm, leg strength) o We don’t have the same hand strength C. How are they related to us? – p. 277 • DNA studies of Neanderthals • Small but significant interbreeding: • Middle East, 80,000-50,000 ya when 1st moderns come out of Africa • p. 277 overview: o Are they closely related to us? Yes o Are they physically & behaviorally distinct? Yes o Completely separate species, incapable of interbreeding? No o Distinctive side branch, on way to being separate species? Yes • • • Each new specimen is going to give us different results, so we can look at the sum of the evidence Most recent summary data suggests that what we have was a small, but significant interbreeding episode in the Middle East when modern humans first arrived there (Neanderthals were already there) there wasn’t a lot of interbreeding to merge the species, but there was a small amount, and this happened when the first moderns come out of Africa (we think that because for the people they have tested, they all some Neanderthal genetic affiliation and the Africans do not!) It looks like that they were closely related enough to our ancestors that interbreeding was possible, • but distinctive enough so they could still be different species WONT TEST US ON DENISOVANS D. Cultural Changes 1. Stone tools • More about what’s going on • See the Mousterian assembling • Basically flakes • Using a lot of scrapers (for woodworking, processing skins, etc) • Mousterian is famous for the first composite tools (putting caps on things, get better angles, better handling, and it is a sign of more complicated abilities – both intellectual and physical) • P. 271 • No real evidence of ivory/antler • Up close hunting 2. Food - hunter vs. scavenger; plants • Big game hunting • Up close hunting 3. Fire/Shelter/Clothing - occasional (?) • Habitual • Building shelters 4. Language (?) – endocast • They have the physical attributes needed for language 5. Burial – deliberate, mortuary rituals (grave goods; cannibalism; ritual) 6. Family Structure; Care/Value of Elders...
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