ANT101 – Lecture 12

H is in northern altitudes that were quite cold

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Unformatted text preview: unter gatherers)? 3. Fire & Shelters: • Later part (400-300,000) - habitual use of fire • Same time: shelters (Lazaret Cave, Terra Amata) • What is interesting about this is that H. h is in Northern altitudes that were quite cold BEFORE they used fire habitually • At the same time we see evidence for shelters being constructed 4. Disposal of Dead (not burial): Bodo; • Atapuerca, Sima de los Huesos (“pit of bones”) • Use the term burial to describe a practice that encompasses some form of ritual • Bodo skull is the first evidence of cannibalism (where stone tools are being used to de-flesh a dead individual) • P. 256 (deliberate disposal of the dead) • Very early (about 600,000 years ago) Biological Changes are different from East Africa In East Asia, what is going on is unclear In Africa, we see a shift from H. h towards anatomically modern H. sapiens Europe and Western Asia = shift from H. h to Neanderthals p. 262 III. Neandertals: Homo neanderthalensis A. Time & Place • ca 130,000 to ca. 30,000 ya or later (Middle Paleolithic) in Europe & Western Asia - Central Asia ONLY • But now as far as Siberia (not Africa, E Asia) • Overlap at the end of their period with modern humans (particularly in the Middle East and in Europe in the end) B. Biological Changes (figure 11-11) – focus is on “Classic Neanderthals” • Increased Robusticity o Very strong, tough bones, and very muscular o Shorter than modern humans, but were much stronger o Very well adapted to cold and glaciers • Cranium differences o Very thick o Big bulges on the sides o More of a forehead than H. erectus, but not a lot like modern humans o Big brow ridges, but it is more of an arch (not a bar) o Mid-face projects o Don’t have much of a chin • Brain size - bigger than moderns! o They are the most encephalized of any homo species o There is a link in that Inuit populations have very large brains o This seems to be something that is a cold adaptation • Skeletal differences – robustness o They are more robu...
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