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ALDEH İ T VE KETONLAR Organik kimyan ı n belki de en önemli fonksiyonel grubu olan karbonil grubunu içeren yine önemli iki bile ş ik aldehitler ve ketonlard ı r. O Karbonil Bu fonksiyonel grup aldehitler, ketonlar karboksilik asitler, esterler ve bir çok organik bile ş i ğ in temel yap ı ş ı nda bulunmaktad ı r. Aldehitler form aldehit, CH 2 =O d ı ş ı nda, karbonil grubuna bir hidrojen atomu ba ğ l ı olan gruplar olarak adland ı r ı labilir ikinci konuma ise herhangi bir organik grup ba ğ lanm ı ş t ı r. R H O Bu fonksiyonel grup aldehitler, ketonlar karboksilik asitler, esterler ve bir çok organik bile ş i ğ in temel yap ı s ı nda bulunmaktad ı r. H O yada - CHO ş eklinde gösterilir. Baz ı örnekler a ş a ğ ı da çizilmi ş tir.. H H O R H O Ar H O Form aldehit alifatik aldehit aromatik aldehit Ketonkarda ise karbonilin her iki ba ğ ı da karbon atomlar ı na ba ğ lanm ı ş t ı r. R R O Ar R O Ar Ar O alifatik keton alkil aril keton aromatik keton O Halkal› keton IUPAC sistemine göre adland ı rmada aldehitler -al eki alarak adland ı r ı l ı r.
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H H O H 3 C H O Et H O metan al Etanal Propanal O H butanal (formaldehit) (asetaldehit) (propiyon aldehit) (n-butilaldehit)
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Christopher Reinemann
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