Chapter09-InterestGroups

Chapter09-InterestGroups - A.P. Civics Notes: Chapter 9...

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A.P. Civics Notes: Chapter 9 “Interest Groups” I. Explaining Proliferation 1. Interest groups  are active participants in the political scene, lobbying for certain causes. 2. There are so many interest groups in the U.S. because there are so many   cleavages , or  differences, in opinion, because the Constitution contributes by giving so many points where  they can  contact the  gov’t (political  authority is shared by the  president, the courts, and  Congress), and because today’s weak political parties let lobbies work directly on the gov’t. i. In Great Britain, centralization has made it so that only one group represents the  farmers, one represents industry, and so on… ii. To   lobby   is to  try to  influence  gov’t decisions  through  petitions  or   other  means;  lobbyists  are people whom, naturally, lobby for changes or actions. II. The Birth of Interest Groups 1. The 1960s and 70s were a boom for the establishment of interest groups, but these groups also  sprang up quickly during the 1770s to agitate for American independence; during the 1830s-40s  to protest slavery (mostly religious groups here); in the 1860s, when crafts-based trade unions  sprang up; and during the 1880s-90s, when business associations were commonplace. i. The biggest area of organization of interest groups came in the first two decades of the  20 th  century, when groups like the  Chamber of Commerce , the  National Association  of   Manufacturers ,   the   American   Medical   Association ,   the   NAACP ,   the   Urban  League , the   American Farm Bureau , the   Farmers’ Union , the   National Catholic  Welfare Conference , the   American Jewish Committee , and the   Anti-Defamation  League  sprang up. ii. The 1960s-70s interest groups were mostly based on environmental, consumer, and  political reform issues and were sponsored by people like  Ralph Nader . 2. Interest groups arise because of certain reasons (usually): i. Broad economic developments create new interests and redefine old ones. a. The farmers didn’t organize until they started selling their products through  forces that THEY could not control (railroads, etc…). ii. Gov’t   policy   helps   create   such   groups   (i.e.   war   creates   veterans   who   can   band  together). a. The  Grand Army of the Republic  was the first large such organization.
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iii. Political organizations often emerge as results of social movements, where bands of  people rally for a cause, like anti-slavery, women’s suffrage, and Darwinism. iv.
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Chapter09-InterestGroups - A.P. Civics Notes: Chapter 9...

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