Chapter13-TheBureaucracy - A.P Civics Notes Chapter 13"The...

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A.P. Civics Notes: Chapter 13 “The Bureaucracy” Intro Stuff:  Bureaucracy  (the real meaning) = A large, complex organization composed of appointed officials,  where authority is divided among several managers and/or departments.  Bureaucracies have come to  be associated with “waste, confusion, red tape, and rigidity.”   We blame many of our problems on “the  bureaucracy.”  But in actuality, many of the problems are a result of the actions of Congress, the courts, and  the president. I. Distinctiveness of the American Bureaucracy 1. Bureaucratic government is a part of all modern societies.  However, the United States has three  aspects of constitutional system and political traditions that make it distinctive. i. Political authority over the bureaucracy is shared among several institutions rather than  placed into one set of hands.  This contrasts with systems such as the British one, where  the prime minister rules supreme (in theory). ii. Most agencies of the federal government share functions with related agencies in state and  local government.  This contrasts with systems present in places like France, where the  things like education, health, housing, etc. are centralized, with little or no local control. iii. American institutions and traditions have given rise to an “adversary culture,” one where  personal rights are given central importance.  In other words, we argue more with every  decision made by the government.   However, in Sweden, similar decisions go largely  uncontested. 2. Also, the scope of the United States government differs from most others.   Many European  governments   own   companies   that   make   automobiles   and   tobacco.     Here,   however,   we   are  regulated to an extent not found in other countries.  We choose regulation over ownership. II. The Growth of Bureaucracy 1. The gov’t  didn’t really start out as a bureaucracy.  The Constitution makes no provisions for such a  system. 2. The center of power that came to be the bureaucracy was first seen in the first Congress in 1789.  James   Madison  introduced a bill to create a  Department of State  to assist the  Secretary of State  in carrying out duties.   What’s important is that the people appointed to the department were  nominated by the President and approved by Senate, but they were “to be removable by the  president” alone.  A big debate started about whether or not the president should be given the sole  power to fire subordinates.
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3. The   president   ended up getting this power.   However, that still didn’t mean that the president  controlled the bureaucracy, for 
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course USHIST 102 taught by Professor Smythe during the Spring '08 term at TCU.

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Chapter13-TheBureaucracy - A.P Civics Notes Chapter 13"The...

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