Chapter-05

Chapter-05 - A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 5:...

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A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 5: “Colonial Society on the Eve of the Revolution” ~ 1700 – 1775 ~ I. Conquest by the Cradle 1. By 1775, Great Britain ruled 32 colonies in North America. a. Only 13 of them revolted. b. Canada and Jamaica were wealthier than the 13. 2. All of them were growing by leaps and bounds. 3. By 1775, the population numbered 2.5 million people. 4. The average age was 16 years. 5. Most of the population was densely cooped up east of the Alleghenies, though by 1775, some had slowly trickled into Tennessee and Kentucky. 6. About 90% of the people lived in rural areas. II. A Mingling of the Races 1. Colonial America, though mostly English, had other races as well. a. Germans accounted for about 6% of the population, or about 150,000 people by 1775. (1) Most were Protestant (primarily Lutheran) and were called the Pennsylvania Dutch. 2. The Scots-Irish were about 7% of the population, with 175,000 people. a. Over many decades, they had been transplanted to Northern Ireland, but they had not found a home there (the already existing Irish Catholics resented the intruders). b. Many of them reached America and became squatters, quarreling with both Indians and white landowners. c. They seemed to try to move as far from Britain as possible, trickling down to Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. d. In 1764, the Scots-Irish led the armed march of the Paxton Boys. e. They were very hotheaded. f. Many eventually became American revolutionists. 3. About 5% of the multicolored population consisted of other European group, like French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders. 4. Americans were of all races and mixed bloods, so it was no wonder that other races from other countries had a hard time classifying them. III. The Structure of the Colonial Society 1. In contrast to contemporary Europe, America was a land of opportunity. 2. Anyone who was willing to work hard could easily go from rags to riches, and poverty was scorned upon. 3. Class differences did emerge, as a small group of aristocrats (made up of the rich farmers, lawyers, officials, clergymen) had much of the power. 4. Also, armed conflicts in the 1690s and 1700s enriched a number of merchant princes in the New England and middle colonies. 5. War also created many widows and orphans who eventually became to charity. 6. In the South, the hugely rich plantation owners had lots of slaves.
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7. Far less fortunate than the indentured servants of America were the paupers and the criminals sent to the New World. a. Some of them were actually unfortunate victims of Britain’s unfair laws and did become respectable citizens. 8. The least fortunate were the Black slaves, who had little or no hope of freedom again. a.
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Chapter-05 - A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 5:...

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