T2 DOK Assignment.docx - Sarah Paulk ELM-210 Brenna...

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Sarah Paulk ELM-210 November 17, 2018 Brenna Diedrich Part 1: Formal According to McManus (2008), there are five attributes that make for effective formal formative assessments. The first attribute is: learning progressions. Formal assessments should be structured in a way that contributes to timely learning progressions, meeting short-term goals. The second attribute is: learning goals and criteria for success. Teachers must identify and communicate the instructional goals to students, while outlining criteria for academic success. The third attribute is: descriptive feedback. Students need to be given detailed feedback with discussion or suggestions about what the student can do to improve. The fourth attribute is: self- and peer-assessment. When students and their peers collaborate, there are more opportunities for them to share and receive feedback. The fifth attribute is: collaboration of students and teachers. The success of formal formative assessments is perfected through positive interactions between students and teachers, in which teachers facilitate a learning environment that is engaging and respectful (McManus, 2008). Conducting formal formative assessments is a way in which teachers can obtain feedback to adjust their ongoing teaching practices, furthering improved student achievement (McManus, 2008). There are two main forms of assessment: formal and informal. Formal formative assessment is a planned evaluation, resulting in delayed feedback and instructional correctives
(McMillan, 2014). Examples of formal formative assessments include: quizzes and tests, in-class assignments, homework, structures activities, and interim tests (McMillan, 2014). These are not casual everyday classroom instruction, but rather pre-planned for the specific purpose of student evaluation. As a teacher, I would rely on quizzes and tests to be the primary formal formative assessment. Parents often help their children do their homework, so a student’s homework success might not be indicative of their true capabilities. Children often get the help of peers during in-class assignments, and structured activities are often done as a group. Therefore, the most reliable method for obtaining feedback is quizzes and tests because children do these independently. According to Clark (2015), high-level formal formative assessments require a higher- order thinking. Skill development in areas such as analysis, evaluation, creation, and synthesis are honed during high-level formal formative assessment. Children can benefit from high-level formative assessments because it fosters metacognitive thinking (Clark, 2015). According to McMillan (2014), high-level formative assessments are assessments with added complexity. This

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