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Chapter-22 - A.P U.S History Notes Chapter 22"The Furnace...

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A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 22: “The Furnace of the Civil War” ~ 1861 – 1865 ~ I. Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War” 1. When President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen on April 15, 1861, he and just about everyone else in the North expected a swift war lasting about 90 days, with a quick suppression of the South to prove the North’s superiority and end this foolishness. 2. On July 21, 1861, ill-trained Yankee recruits swaggered out toward Bull Run to engage a smaller Confederate unit. i. The atmosphere was like that of a sporting event, as Congressmen gathered in picnics. ii. However, after initial success by the Union, Confederate reinforcements arrived and, coupled with Stonewall Jackson ’s line holding, sent the Union soldiers into disarray. 3. The Battle of Bull Run showed both sides that this would not be a short, easy war. II. “Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign 1. Later in 1861, command of the Army of the Potomac (name of the Union army) was given to 34 year old General George B. McClellan , an excellent drillmaster and organizer of troops but also a perfectionist who constantly believed that he was outnumbered, never took risks, and held the army without moving for months before finally ordered by Lincoln to advance. 2. Finally, he decided upon a water-borne approach to Richmond, called the Peninsula Campaign , taking about a month to capture Yorktown before coming to the Richmond. i. At this moment, President Lincoln took McClellan’s expected reinforcements and sent them chasing Stonewall Jackson, and after “Jeb” Stuart ’s Confederate cavalry rode completely around McClellan’s army, Southern General Robert E. Lee launched a devastating counterattack—the Seven Days’ Battles —on June 26 to July 2 of 1862. ii. The victory at Bull Run ensured that the South, if it lost, would lose slavery as well, and it was after this battle that Lincoln began to draft an emancipation proclamation. 3. The Union strategy now turned to total war: i. Suffocate the South through an oceanic blockade. ii. Free the slaves to undermine the South’s very economic foundations. iii. Cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River. iv. Chop the Confederacy to pieces by marching through Georgia and the Carolinas. v. Capture its capital, Richmond , Virginia. vi. Try everywhere to engage the enemy’s main strength and grind it to submission. III. The War at Sea 1. The Union blockade started leakily at first, but it clamped down later. 2. Britain, who would ordinarily protest such interference in the seas that she “owned,” recognized the blockade as binding, since Britain herself often used blockades in her wars.
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