Chapter-23

Chapter-23 - A.P U.S History Notes Chapter 23"The Ordeal of...

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A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 23: “The Ordeal of Reconstruction” ~ 1865 – 1877 ~ I. The Problems of Peace 1. After the war, there were many questions over what to do with the free Blacks, how to reintegrate the Southern states into the Union, what to do with Jefferson Davis , and who would be in charge of Reconstruction . 2. The Southern way of life was ruined, as crops and farms were destroyed, the slaves were now free, and the cities were bombed out, but still, some Southerners remained defiant. II. Freedmen Define Freedom 1. At first, the freed Blacks faced a confusing situation, as many slave owners re-enslaved their slaves over and over again after Union troops left. i. Other planters resisted emancipation through legal means, citing that emancipation wasn’t valid until local or state courts declared it. ii. Some slaves loyally stuck to their owners while others let out their pen-up bitterness in their freedom, pillaging their former masters’ land, property, and even whipping them. 2. Eventually, even resisting plantation owners had to give up their slaves, and afterwards tens of thousands of Blacks took to the roads to find new work or look for lost loved ones. 3. The church became to the focus of the Black community life in the years following the war. 4. Emancipation also meant education for Blacks, but despite all the gains Blacks made, they still faced severe discrimination and would have to wait a century before attaining their rights. III. The Freedman’s Bureau 1. In order to train the unskilled and unlettered freed Blacks, the Freedman’s Bureau was set up on March 3, 1865; Union General Oliver O. Howard headed it. 2. The bureau taught about 200,000 Blacks how to read, since most former slaves wanted to narrow the literary gap between them and Whites and also read the word of God. 3. However, it wasn’t as effective as it could have been, as evidenced by the further discrimination of Blacks, and it expired in 1872 after much criticism by racist Whites. IV. Johnson: The Tailor President 1. Andrew Johnson came from very poor and humble beginnings, and he served in Congress for many years (he was the only Confederate Congressman not to leave Congress when the rest of the South seceded). 2. Feared for his reputation of having a short temper and being a great fighter, but he was a dogmatic champion of states’ rights and the Constitution, and he was a Tennessean who never earned the trust of the North and never regained the confidence of the South. V. Presidential Reconstruction 1. Since Abraham Lincoln believed that the South had never legally withdrawn from the Union, restoration was to be relatively simple: the southern states could be reintegrated into the Union if and when they had 10% of its voters pledge an oath to the Union and also acknowledge the emancipation of the slaves; it was called the Ten Percent Plan . 2.
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Chapter-23 - A.P U.S History Notes Chapter 23"The Ordeal of...

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