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Chapter-27 - A.P U.S History Notes Chapter 27"The Great...

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A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 27: “The Great West and the Agricultural  Revolution” ~ 1865 – 1890 ~ I. Indians Embattled in the West 1. After the Civil War, the Great West was still relatively untamed, wild, full of Indians, bison, and wildlife, and sparsely populated by a few Mormons and Mexicans. 2. As the White settlers began to populate the Great West, the Indians, caught in the middle, were increasingly turned against each other, infected with White man’s diseases, and stuck battling to hunt the few remaining bison that were still around. i. The Sioux , displaced by Chippewas from the their ancestral lands at the headwaters of the Mississippi in the late 1700s, expanded at the expense of the Crows , Kiowas , and Pawnees , and justified their actions through the excuse that White men had done the same thing to them. a. The Indians had become great riders and fighters ever since the Spanish introduced the horse to them. 3. The federal government tried to pacify the Indians by signing treaties at Fort Laramie in 1851 and Fort Atkinson in 1853 with the chiefs of the tribes, but the U.S. failed to understand that such “tribes” and “chiefs” didn’t exist in Indian culture, and that in most cases, Native Americans didn’t recognize authorities outside of their families. 4. In the 1860s, the U.S. government intensified its effort into herding Indians into still smaller and smaller reservations (like the Dakota Territory ). i. Indians were often promised that they wouldn’t be bothered further after moving out of their ancestral lands, and often, Indian agents were corrupt and pawned off shoddy food and products to their own fellow Indians. ii. White men often disregarded treaties, though, and they often “ripped off” Indians. 5. In frustration, many Native American tribes attack Whites, and slew of skirmishes from 1868 to 1890 called the “ Indian Wars ” made up the bitterness of the Indians. i. Many times, though, the Indians were better equipped than the federal troops sent to quell their revolts. ii. Generals Sherman , Sheridan , and Custer all battled Indians. II. Receding Native Population 1. Violence reigned supreme in Indian-White Man relations. i. In 1864, at Sand Creek , Colorado, Colonel J.M. Chivington ’s militia massacred some four hundred Indians in cold blood—Indians who had thought they had been promised immunity and Indians who were peaceful and harmless. ii. In 1866, a Sioux war party ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman ’s command of 81 soldiers and civilians who were constructing the Bozeman Trail to the Montana goldfields, leaving no survivors. a. This massacre was one of the few Indian victories, as another treaty at Fort Laramie was signed two years later.
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2. Colonel Custer found gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota, and hordes of gold-seekers invaded the Sioux reservation in search for gold, causing the Sioux to go on the warpath, completely decimating Custer’s Seventh Calvary at Little Big Horn in the process.
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