A.P. U.S. History Notes
Chapter 30: “America on the World State”
~ 1899 – 1909 ~
“Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines
The Filipinos had assumed that they would receive freedom after the
, but when they didn’t they revolted against the U.S.
The insurrection began on February 4, 1899, and was led by
who took his troops into guerrilla warfare after open combat proved to be useless.
Stories of atrocities abounded, but finally, the rebellion was broken in 1901 when
U.S. soldier invaded Aguinaldo’s headquarters and captured him.
in 1899 to deal with the Filipinos,
and in its second year, the organization was headed by amiable
William H. Taft
developed a strong attachment for the Filipinos, calling them his “little brown brothers.”
The Americans tried to assimilate the Filipinos, but the islanders resisted; they finally got
their independence on July 4, 1946.
John Hay Defends China (and U.S. Interests)
Following its defeat by Japan in 1894-94, China had been carved into spheres of influence
by the European powers.
American were alarmed, as churches worried about their missionary strongholds while
businesses feared that they would not be able to export their products to China.
Finally, Secretary of State
dispatched his famous
Open Door note
urged the European nations to keep fair competition open to all nations willing and
wanting to participate.
All the powers already holding spots of China were squirmish, and only Italy,
which had no sphere of influence of its own, accepted unconditionally.
Russia didn’t accept at all, but the others did, on certain conditions, and thus,
China was “saved” from being carved up.
Hinging the Open Door in China
In 1900, a super-patriotic group known as the “
” revolted and took over the capital
of China, Beijing, taking all foreigners hostage, including diplomats.
After a multi-national force broke the rebellion, the powers made China by $333 million
for damages, of which the U.S. eventually received $18 million.