Chapter-35 - A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 35: "The...

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Chapter 35: “The Politics of Boom and Bust” ~ 1920 – 1932 ~ I. The Republican “Old Guard” Returns 1. Newly elected President Warren G. Harding was tall, handsome, and popular, but he had a mediocre mind and he did not like to hurt people’s feelings. i. Neither could he detect the corruption of his cabinet. 2. His cabinet did have some good officials, though, such as Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes , who was masterful, imperious, incisive, and brilliant, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover , and Secretary of the Treasury Andrew W. Mellon . 3. However, people like Senator Albert B. Fall of New Mexico, a scheming anti- conservationist, became secretary of the interior, and Harry M. Daugherty took over reigns as attorney general. i. These two became the worst of the scandalous cabinet members. II. GOP Reaction at the Throttle 1. A good man but a weak one, Harding was the perfect front for old-fashioned politicians to set up a McKinley style old order back onto the U.S. i. It hoped to improve on laissez-faire, and one of the examples of this was the Supreme Court, where Harding appointed four of the nine justices, including William H. Taft , former president of the United States. 2. In the early 1920s, the Supreme Court killed a federal child-labor law. i. In the case of Adkins vs. Children’s Hospital , the court reversed its ruling in the Muller vs. Oregon case by invalidating a minimum wage law for women. 3. Under Harding, corporations could expand again, and anti-trust laws were not as enforced or downright ignored. 4. Men sympathetic to railroads headed the Interstate Commerce Commission . III. The Aftermath of the War 1. Wartime government controls disappeared (i.e. the dismantling of the War Industries Board ) and Washington returned control of railroads to private hands by the Esch- Cummins Transportation Act of 1920. 2. The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 authorized the Shipping Board , which controlled about 1500 vessels, to get rid of a lot of ships at bargain prices, thus reducing the navy. 3. Labor lost much of its power, as a strike was ruthlessly broken in 1919, and the Railway Labor Board ordered a wage cut of 12% in 1922. i. Labor membership shrank by 30% from 1920 to 1930. 4. In 1921, the Veterans’ Bureau was created to operate hospitals and provide vocational rehabilitation for the disabled. i. Many veterans wanted the monetary compensation promised to them for their services in the war. ii. The Adjusted Compensation Act gave every former soldier a paid-up insurance policy due in twenty years, and was passed by Congress twice (the second time to override president Calvin Coolidge ’s veto). IV.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course USHIST 102 taught by Professor Smythe during the Spring '08 term at TCU.

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Chapter-35 - A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 35: "The...

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