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Chapter-38 - A.P U.S History Notes Chapter 38"America in...

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A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 38: “America in World War II” ~ 1941 – 1945 ~ I. The Allies Trade Space for Time 1. When Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor , millions of infuriated Americans, especially on the west coast, instantly changed their views from isolationist to avengist. 2. However, America, led by the wise Franklin D. Roosevelt , resisted such pressures, instead taking a “get Germany first” approach to the war, for if Germany were to defeat Britain before the Allies could beat Japan, there would be no stopping Hitler and his men. i. In the mean time, just enough troops would be sent to fight Japan to keep it in check. 3. America had the hardship of preparing for war, since it had been in isolation for the preceding decades, and the test would be whether or not it could mobilize quickly enough to stop Germany and save the world for democracy (again). II. The Shock of War 1. After the attack at Pearl Harbor, national unity was strong as steel, and the few Hitler supporters in America faded away. 2. Most of America’s ethnic groups assimilated even faster due to WWII, since in the decades before the war, few immigrants had been allowed into America. i. Unfortunately, on the Pacific coast, 110,000 Japanese-Americans were taken from their homes and herded into relocation camps, where their properties and freedoms were taken away from them. ii. The 1944 case of Korematsu vs. U.S. affirmed the constitutionality of this terrible act. a. It took more than 40 years later before the U.S. admitted fault and began to make $20,000 reparations to camp survivors. 3. With the war, many New Deal programs were wiped out, such as the Civilian Conservation Corps , the Works Progress Administration , and the National Youth Administration . 4. WWII was no idealistic crusade, as most Americans didn’t even know what the Atlantic Charter (declaration of U.S. into the war and to fight Germany first, and Japan second) was! III. Building the War Machine 1. Massive military orders (over $100 billion in 1942 alone) ended the Great Depression by creating demand for jobs and production. 2. Shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser was dubbed “Sir Lauchalot” because his methods of ship assembly churned out one ship ever 14 days! 3. The War Production Board halted manufacture of nonessential items such as passenger cars, and when the Japanese seized vital rubber supplies in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, the U.S. imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing to save tires. 4. Farmers rolled out more food, but the new sudden spurt in production made prices soar—a problem that was finally solved by the regulation of it by the Office of Price Administration . 5. While labor unions pledged not to strike during the war, some did anyway. i. The United Mine Workers was one such group and was led by John L. Lewis .
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