Chapter-42 - A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 42: "The...

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Chapter 42: “The Stalemated Seventies” ~ 1968 – 1980 ~ I. The Economy Stagnates in the 1970s 1. After the flurry of economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. economy stagnated in the 1970s, in which not one year of that decade had a growth rate that even matched a year of the preceding two decades. i. Part of it was caused by more women and teens in the work force who typically had less skill and made less money than males, while deteriorating machinery and U.S. regulations also limited growth. 2. Former President Lyndon B. Johnson ’s spending on the Vietnam War and on his Great Society program also depleted the U.S. treasury, and this caused too much money in people’s hands and too little products to buy. 3. Also, since the U.S. did not continue advancing, they were caught by the Japanese and the Germans in industries that the U.S. once dominated: steel, automobiles, consumer electronics. II. Nixon “Vietnamizes” the War 1. Upon taking office, President Richard Nixon urged American’s to stop tearing each other apart cooperate. i. He was very skilled in foreign affairs, and to cope with the Vietnam dilemma, he used a policy called “Vietnamization” in which 540,000 American troops would be pulled out of the Southeast Asian nation. ii. The South Vietnamese would slowly fight their own war, and the U.S. would only supply arms and money; this was called the Nixon Doctrine . 2. While outwardly seeming to appease, Nixon divided America into his supporters and opponents. 3. The war was fought generally by the least privileged Americans, since college students and critically skilled civilians were exempt, and there were also reports of dissension in the army. i. Soldiers slogged through grimy mud and jungle, trusting nothing and almost paranoid. 4. The My Lai Massacre of 1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war. 5. In 1970, Nixon ordered an attack on Cambodia, Vietnam’s neighbor. III. Cambodianizing the Vietnam War 1. North Vietnamese had been using Cambodia as a springboard for funneling troops and arms, and on April 29, 1970, Nixon suddenly ordered U.S. troops to invade Cambodia to stop this. 2. Much uproar was caused, as riots occurred at Kent State University and at Jackson State College . i. Two months later, Nixon withdrew U.S. troops from Cambodia. 3. The Cambodian incident even more split the “hawks” and the “doves” (war vs. peace). 4. The U.S. Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution , and in 1971, the 26 th Amendment , lowering the voting age to eighteen, was also passed. 5. In June 1971, The New York Times published a top-secret Pentagon study of America’s involvement of the Vietnam War—papers that had been leaked by Daniel Ellsberg , former Pentagon official—which exposed all the deceit used by the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. IV.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course USHIST 102 taught by Professor Smythe during the Spring '08 term at TCU.

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Chapter-42 - A.P. U.S. History Notes Chapter 42: "The...

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