Review Sheet 3 - Review 3 Psyc1101 Memory Types of memory...

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Review 3: Psyc1101 Memory Types of memory: episodic, semantic, procedural, implicit, explicit memory Episodic memory refers to memory for personal experiences. Semantic memory refers to generalized formal knowledge of the world Procedural memory refers to memory for learned skills Implicit memory : prior experiences that influence you. These experiences are not intentionally remembered Explicit memory : deliberately remembered events Basic processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval; 1. Encoding (acoustic, visual, semantic) 2. Storage (maintaining information over time; short term, long term) 3. Retrieva l (having access to that information; by recall, by recognition) Role of attention; Focus awareness on a narrow range of events or stimuli Attending to stimuli moves them over from sensory memory into short term memory (STM) also called working memory Information processing model; characterize sensory memory, short term or working memory Most dominant way of thinking about memory: Information is processed in stages: Sensory memory, Short term memory, And long term memory Sensory memory : auditory, visual, somato-sensory, gustatory and olfactory. Information at this level is fleeting and remains no longer than 0.5 seconds in memory Solving problems from moment to moment. Information remains for about 20 seconds in STM. Information is stored by rehearsal. Immediate memory spans 7 ± 2 bits or chunks of information. Principal method of remembering in STM is rehearsal. Long-term memory in terms of duration and capacity Storage in LTM is permanent: elaborative rehearsal. LTM: conceptual hierarchy, semantic network Role of rehearsal in STM and LTM.
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Attending to stimuli moves them over from sensory memory into short term memory (STM) also called working memory Principal method of remembering in STM is rehearsal. Serial-position effect: primacy effect; recency effect Serial-position effect : primacy effect, recency effect Forgetting Deficiency in encoding, storage and retrieval Forgetting may be due to ineffective encoding (lack of attention) Ineffective encoding is not really forgetting The information was not in memory in the first place (pseudo-forgetting) Tip of the tongue phenomenon Temporary failure to remember something you know accompanied by a feeling that it is just out of reach Mood-congruent retrieval Recreate the mood that you were in when the event took place Retrieval: recall, recognition and relearning Retrieval aids or cues help gain access to memories. The cue for remembering can be a letter, a word, or sound. To reinstate (remember) the context of an event, use cues: time, place Retrieval failure: mismatch of retrieval cues and encoding used to store information.
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