Kant, Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysic

32 logical table of judgments 1 2 quantity quality

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Unformatted text preview: The judgment that air is elastic can become universally valid, and thus be turned into a judgment of experience, because of certain preliminary judgments that bring the intuition of air under the concept of cause and effect. If all our objectively valid synthetic judgments are analysed, it turns out that they never consist in mere intuitions that are brought together in a judgment through mere comparison. Always, a pure concept of the understanding has been added to the concepts that are abstracted from intuition. This applies even to the judgments of pure mathematics, including its simplest axioms. The principle ‘A straight line is the shortest path between two points’ presupposes that the line has been brought under the concept of size. That concept doesn’t come from intuition; it has its seat solely in the understanding, and serves to get the intuition (of the line) ready for quantitative judgments to be made about it. Section 21 If we are to prove that experience is possible insofar as it rests on pure a priori concepts of the understanding, we need a Ÿlist of these concepts. We arrive at this list through a Ÿlist of basic kinds of judgments that we can make, because the pure concepts of the understanding run parallel to those judgment kinds. . . . -----------------------------------3 An easier example is: ‘When the sun shines on the stone, it grows warm.’ This is a mere judgment of perception and contains no necessity, no matter how often I and others may have perceived this. But if I say ‘The sun warms the stone’, ·which means that the sun causes the stone to become warm·, the concept of cause is added to the perception and connects the concept of warmth necessarily with the concept of sunshine. 32 LOGICAL TABLE OF JUDGMENTS 1 2 Quantity Quality Universal Affirmative Particular Negative Singular Infinite 3 Relation Categorical Hypothetical Disjunctive 4 Modality Problematic Assertoric Apodictic TABLE OF CONCEPTS OF THE UNDERSTANDING 1 2 Quantity Quality Unity (measure) Reality Plurality (size) Negation Totality (whole) Limitation 3 Relation Substance Cause Community 4 Modality Possibility Existence Necessity P URE PHYSICAL TABLE OF THE UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL SCIENCE 1 2 Axioms of Intuition Anticipations of Perception 3 Analogies of Experience 4 Postulates of empirical thinking generally Section 21a If you are to grasp all this in a single thought, I must first remind you that our topic is not where experience comes from but what experience contains. The former topic belongs to empirical psychology, though even that would not suffice without the latter topic, which belongs to the critique of knowledge and especially of the understanding. Experience consists of intuitions, which belong to the sensibility, and of judgments, which are entirely a work of the understanding. But the Ÿjudgments that the understanding forms from sensory intuitions alone are far from being Ÿjudgments of experience. For a judgment of the former kind only connects the perceptions as they are given in sensory intuition, while a judgment of experience must express Ÿwhat is contained in experience in general, and not merely Ÿwhat is contained in the mere perception (which possesses only 33 subjective validity). So a judgment of experience must add something to Ÿthe sensuous intuition and Ÿthe logical tie-up of that intuition to others in a judgment (after it has been made universal ·merely· by comparing ·this intuition with others·). What it must add is something implying that the synthetic judgment is necessary and therefore universally valid - ·not merely universal in the weak way that comes from comparing intuitions with one another·. This added element can only be the concept that represents the intuition as a suitable subject for one form of judgment rather than another. Section 22 Summing up: The business of the senses is to intuit; that of the understanding, to think. Now, thinking is unifying representations in a consciousness, and this can be done either in Ÿa contingent and subjective way or in Ÿa manner that is necessary and objective. Since thinking is the same as judging, it follows that judgments are of two kinds: a judgment may be merely Ÿsubjective (when representations are related to one another only with respect to one person’s consciousness), or it may be Ÿobjective (when the representations are related with respect to consciousness in general, that is, with respect to every possible conscious mind). The basic kinds of judgment are simply possible ways of unifying representations in a consciousness; and when they serve as concepts, they are concepts of the necessary unification of representations in any consciousness, which means that the judgments that involve them are objectively valid. In experience, perceptions are synthetically but necessarily connected in a consciousness; for them to be connected in this manner, they must be brought under pure concepts of the understanding; so these concepts are required if any judgments of experience are to be made.4 Sect...
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2013 for the course PHIL 105 taught by Professor Mendetta during the Spring '13 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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