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Unformatted text preview: e height of the bar drawn above each ‘thing’ being counted x axis shows the categories that are being counted Bar graph: x axis is Nominal or Bar graph: x axis is Nominal or Ordinal scale June 28th 2004, Ottawa Centre 30000 Number of votes 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 NDP LIB CON GRN MP IND Political party COM CAP ML Histogram: x axis is Interval or Histogram: x axis is Interval or Ratio scale Histogram of IQ levels Number of individuals 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 60 70 80 90 100 IQ score 110 120 130 140 Scatterplots show the relationship Scatterplots show the relationship (correlation) between variables 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 2 t s e T 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Test 1 • Variables on both the x and y axes are interval or ratio scales • Each point represents a participant in the study Basic Statistics Basic Statistics • Descriptive statistics – Used to describe data • Provide an accurate summary of the important aspects of your data • using as few numbers as possible Choice of statistic is determined by what you consider to be important • Inferential statistics – Used to make inferences or generalizations from data • You have only made observations on a small sample • How confident are you in generalizing your conclusions...
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