Andes2007Lec1 - RISE OF CIVILIZATION\Andes2007Lec1.wpd T...

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1R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [\Andes2007Lec1.wpd] April 17, 2007 T. D'Altroy A NDES I C OTTON P RECERAMIC THROUGH I NITIAL P ERIOD ©Terence N. D’Altroy T HE A NDEAN E NVIRONMENT 1. western South America: region of striking environmental contrast a. long posited that environment was key element in formation of Andean civilization 1. challenges a. desert, mountains, forest b. rugged topography c. no navigable rivers 2. opportunities a. irrigable valleys b. compact microenvironments 2. Andes mountains a. dominant geographical feature b. two parallel ranges 1. Cordillera Oriental (east) 2. Cordillera Occidental (west) e. Bolivia and far NW Argentina 1. main ranges are separated by the altiplano 2. windswept plain that encloses Lake Titicaca a. 3,800 m (12,467'): world's highest navigable lake f. highest peaks in the south 2. Andean climate a. gradients: 1. dry and cool in the south; warm and wet in the north 2. arid on the west to moister on the east b. coastal desert 1. produced by a. Peruvian Current: frigid, north-flowing waters b. prevailing winds c. mountains 2. from central Chile to Ecuador's Santa Elena Peninsula 3. parts of the Atacama: centuries without measurable rainfall 4. entire coast: punctuated by drainages a. narrow swaths of green b. lush croplands: esp. productive north Peruvian coast 1
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c. upper Amazonian jungles: east side of the Andes, from Bolivia north 1. montaña : eastern Peruvian slopes 2. ceja de la selva : upper edge of the Amazonian forest a. "eyebrow of the jungle" d. yunga (up to 2,300 m; 7,500'): warm valleys 1. produce coca and fruits: chirimoya, guayabo, avocado, lúcuma e. queshwa zone (to 3,500 m; 11,400') 1. sharply cut zone in Peru: above the warm valleys 2. maize and beans wheat and barley f. suni zone (up to 4,000 m; 13,100') 1. cold hills, ridges, and deep valleys 2. rainfall and irrigation agriculture produce a. native grain: quinoa b. legume: talwi b. tubers: potato, mashwa, ulluco, oca g. puna (up to 4,800 m; 15,748') 1. cold and damp rolling grassland 2. natural habitat of Andean camelids a. herding: llamas and alpacas b. hunting: guanacos, vicuñas, deer h. janca 1. jagged snowcaps and glacial lakes 2. exploited for abundant mineral wealth 4. El Niño a. trade winds unpredictably slacken: every few years 1. equatorial waters flow south 2. surface waters reach tropical temperatures 3. torrential rains fall on the coast b. marine and bird life: die or migrate c. croplands and canals: can be badly damaged d. some archaeologists propose: this phenomenon triggered past social upheavals, by disrupting food production 1. other possible disruptions a. geologic uplift b. migration of wind-blown sand e. recent evidence suggests that farmers may have been able to predict El Niño 1. based on cloud cover in June: view of Pleiades 2. allowed prediction of rain late in year a. hazy cover: dry season b. clear: good rains 5. domestication: by 3000 BC, all the major cultigens and animals used to support human life in 2
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Andes2007Lec1 - RISE OF CIVILIZATION\Andes2007Lec1.wpd T...

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