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Andes2007Lec2 - RISE OF CIVILIZATION\Andes2007Lec2.wpd...

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1 R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [\Andes2007Lec2.wpd] April 19, 2007 A NDES II: T HE E MERGENCE OF S TATE S OCIETY (C HAVÍN THROUGH M OCHE ) © Terence N. D’Altroy 1. today's lecture covers a major transition a. taking off from the early differentiated societies of the Initial Period b. through the Chavín phenomenon 1. for a long time considered to be the “mother culture” for Andean civilization 2. analogous to the Olmec in Mesoamerica c. to the first state societies of South America 1. the Moche: north Peruvian coast T HE E ARLY H ORIZON 1. after the Initial Period: Andean prehistory often conceived as alternating periods of a. large-scale integration b. and balkanization: regional breakdown of power 2. first integrative period: termed Early Horizon a. associated with crystallization of distinctive Chavín art style 1. array of fantastical and representational figures 2. coalesced into classic form: by mid-first millennium BC b. type site: Chavín de Huantar 1. style probably the religious iconography of an expansive or integrative cult c. some archaeologists consider that Andean artistry may have reached pinnacle in Chavín artwork 3. however: rather than period of social integration a. zenith of Chavín “integration”: may have actually seen the demise of the social formations that built the great coastal ceremonial complexes 1
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b. spread of Chavín imagery: preceded or paralleled by important independent social and artistic developments 1. in Paracas, Lima, Casma, Nepeña, and Moche areas 4. Early Horizon dates a. Chavín de Huantar 1. first occupation: 1200 BC 2. dominant era: 850-200 BC b. coastal counterpart, called Cupisnique: ca. 1500-400 BC 1. i.e., Cupisnique precedes classic highland Chavín culture by 300 years 5. Caballo Muerto (Moche Valley): example of Cupisnique culture complex a. ceremonial complex: at least 8 major temple mounds 1. covers 2 km NS x 1 km EW 2. probably 2-3 in use at once 3. population probably resident d. three major periods for construction 1. Period I: 1500-1200 BC 2. Period II: 1200-800 BC 3. Period III: 800-400 BC d. I-II: most impressive constructions a. each mound is in the shape of a U 1. continuity from Initial Period 2. central large mound with two flanking parallel wing structures b. Huaca de los Reyes 1. most complex: 2 symmetrical platform mounds 2. series of 58 adobe friezes on faces a. large adobe heads: human and feline characteristics b. bipedal figure: presumably human 3. labor costs: 100 men full-time for 11.43 years to build second construction phase C HAVÍN DE H UANTAR 1. Chavín de Huantar: key site for the Early Horison 2
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a. 40 ha: 100 acres 2. three-phase traditional chronology a. early (Urabarriu): 850-460 BC 1. platform used only during this phase 2. Old Temple c. middle (Chakinani): 460-390 BC 1. classic Chavín style ceramics 2. short period of occupation: New Temple built d. late (Janabarriu): 390-200 BC 1. marked by expansion of settlement: 1.2 km long 2. era of major construction at Castillo 3. dissemination of classic Chavín style art 3. new chronology a. earliest occupation ca. 1200 BC 1. i.e., in latter part of Initial Period b.
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