Egypt_New__Kingdom_2007 - THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION NEW...

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1 T HE R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [Egypt2007Lec4.wpd] February 22, 2007 © T. D’Altroy N EW K INGDOM (sources: see previous lectures) 1. 1570-1070 BC a. 18-20th Dynasties b. 500 years 2. period of reunification a. plus imperial expansion b. like Middle Kingdom c. last such period in ancient Egyptian civilization 3. historical development a. King Ahmose: from Thebes 1. Dynasty 18 2. expulsion of Hyksos: began around 1570 BC a. from delta b. and beyond eastern frontier 4. Thutmosis I: major figure a. founded Dynasty 18 1. 1504-1492 BC b. led greatest Egyptian military exploits c. imperial expansion 1. outside Upper and Lower Egypt 2. new professional standing army by this time 3. important role for king as war leader 4. growing importance of booty and external tribute a. source of wealth for king d. northward expansion 1. conquest of eastern Mediterranean coast a. Palestine b. Lebanon 2. tribute from: but not direct control over a. Assyrians b. Hittites c. Babylonians 3. i.e., NE societies maintained political independence e. southward expansion 1. military expansion into Nubia a. treated more as vassal territory 2. system of forts, garrisons, governors 3. shared power with vassal kings 4. gold: main resource extracted 5. coupled with regional depopulation 1
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5. development of standing army created two power sources in Egyptian internal politics a. army b. priesthood 6. succession of various rulers a. Thuthmosis II (1492-1479): little trace b. Thuthmosis III (1479-25) 1. mother Hatshepsut ruled for 20 yrs a. first 7 as regent b. then as Queen 2. widow of Tuthmosis II 3. little campaigning during her era 4. new campaigns in NE 5. successful resistance by Mitanni 6. ultimately had to renounce furthest points of expansion on Euphrates 7. also campaigned in Nubia a. established provincial capital at 4th cataract: Napata 8. late in reign: turned against Hatshepsut and smashed her images 9. took son Amenophis II (1427-01) as co-regent c. Amenophis II had to re-establish dominion in NE 1. problem: subordinate rulers viewed their allegiance as being to ruler a. not to Egypt d. marriage by various rulers daughters of Mitanni rulers: implied Egyptian dominance 1. e.g., Tuthmosis IV to one 2. Amenophis III to more than one c. Amenophis III: responsible for vast building campaigns 1. esp. in Theban area 2. probably also at Memphis 7. Amenophis IV (1353-1335 BC): a.k.a. Akhenaten a. radical ideological change 1. gave himself title of high priest of Sun God 2. changed name in 5th year of rule 3. deified himself in his lifetime b. famous for his bizarre appearance: maybe hermaphrodite c. married to Nefertiti 1. who played role of almost equal stature 2. gave birth to 6 daughters, no sons d. father of boy king Tutankhamun e. attempted to wipe political and ideological slate clean 1. attempt to suppress cult of many older deities 2. e.g., Amon suppressed 3. in favor of new, exclusivist cult of Aten (Sun Disk) 4. possible precursor of monotheism a. influence on Israelites
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Egypt_New__Kingdom_2007 - THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION NEW...

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