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Andes2007Lec3 - Rise of Civilization ANDES 3 THE RISE OF...

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1Rise of Civilization [\Andes2007Lec3.wpd] April 24, 2007 T. D'Altroy A NDES 3: T HE R ISE OF H IGHLAND S TATES T IWANAKU AND W ARI 1. lecture today will focus on the rise of the highland states 2. while Moche ruled the north coast of Peru a. two urban centers in south-central Andes rose to power 1. Tiwanaku: held power 100 BC to AD 900 a. S of Lake Titicaca 2. Wari: AD 500-750 a. Ayacucho Basin 3. long controversy over relationships a. shared 1. first highland urban centers 2. iconography 3. megalithic architecture a. relationships 1. competitors? 2. dual capitals? 4. look at evidence T IWANAKU Setting 1. environment: altiplano a. topography, elevation, and cold climate severely constrain agricultural inventory of Titicaca Basin 1. tubers dominate: potato, oca, ulluco, mashwa b. llama and alpaca critical elements of subsistence economy 2. camelid pastoralism: cornerstone of economy a. at Spanish conquest: some wealthy nobles owned up to 50,000 animals b. total camelid population: R500,000 c. provided key for long-distance trade 1. south coast of Peru: Moquegua Valley 2. tropical forests Chronological sequence 1. basic sequence of occupation a. 100 BC-A.D. 900: Tiwanaku was central to occupation of Titicaca Basin b. Tiwanaku achieved basin-wide importance by about A.D. 200 c. Phase 3: A.D. 100-375 1. monumental construction projects 1
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2. agrarian expansion d. Phase 4: 375-725: Classic Tiwanaku phase 1. construction development continued unabated 2. achievement of true imperial status 3. establishment of administrative centers 4. satellite cities 5. economic colonies 6. sphere of occupation: altiplano, Bolivian selva, coasts of southern Peru and northern Chile 2. Kolata: reasons for emergence of Tiwanaku state unclear a. no real resource advantages over any neighboring region b. good agricultural base 1. but required massive intensification c. probable period of aggressive raiding between localized polities before 100 AD d. rise to pre-eminence: perhaps consequence of integrative ideology Tiwanaku: the urban center 1. some misinterpretations of Tiwanaku as empty ceremonial center a. focus of pilgrimages from throughout southern Andes b. lacking substantial residential population c. resulted from considering only the most impressive monumental architecture d. ceremonial space decreases as one moves away from the center e. however, total occupation area: >4 km 2 1. total population: 30,000-50,000 2. much larger nonresident population in the rural hinterlands f. center surrounded by series of moats 1. especially well-defined along eastern perimeter 2. layout a. E-W axial plan b. major architectural features shared same orientation 3. Akapana a. largest structure at site b. 200 m x 200 m x 17 m c. 6 terraces d. mammoth stone-faced retaining walls: step-like 1. vertical pillars erected at corners of structures 2. ashlar masonry between pillars 3. probably covered with textiles or metal plaques e. series of interlinked surface and semi-subterranean drains 1. designed to collect water and run it through system underneath pyramid f. stones held together by copper clamps 4. Pumapunku a. 150 x 150 x 5 m b. high-quality ashlar masonry 2
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