Andes2007Lec4Inkas

Andes2007Lec4Inkas - V1008 THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION ANDES...

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1V1008: T HE R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [\Andes2007Lec4.wpd] April 26, 2007 A NDES IV: T HE I NKA E MPIRE © Terence N. D’Altroy 1. around AD 1400 a. Inkas arose as most powerful society in the southern Peruvian highlands b. established largest empire in pre-European Americas 2. organization characterized many ways a. feudal, utopian, socialistic, despotic b. realistically: variable 1. Andean sociopolitical landscape was variable at the time of the Inka conquests 3. most important features of organization a. state organization based on 1. existing societies throughout Andes at time of conquests 2. local variations present before Inka conquests c. at same time: systematic introduction of empire-wide policies d. to understand Andean economics under the Inkas and the Inka political economy 1. need to understand interaction between regional organizations and newly imposed state 4. apparent paradox a. ubiquitous state intrusion into everyday life 1. labor service 2. sumptuary laws 3. religion 4. massive demographic reshuffling b. continuity of local social forms 5. resolution of paradox a. Inkas used local society as ideological model for state b. permitted retention of local social forms 1. convenient structures for implementing state policies C ONDITIONS AT THE INCEPTION OF THE EMPIRE 1. highlands a. largely divided up into many small polities b. engaged in chronic warfare c. no evidence of real political or social hierarchies following collapse of Wari and 1
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Tiwanaku d. largest and most powerful polities lay in the Lake Titicaca basin 2. coast a. Chimor: major expansionist state on north coast 1. last great obstacle to Inka expansion 2. apparently attacked only once Inkas had most of the rest of the Andes under their control 3. complex, urbanized state society 4. capital at Chan Chan: in old Moche heartland b. Pachacamac continued on central coast 1. revered as oracle by Inkas 2. destroyed by Hernando Pizarro in 1532 H ISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE I NKA EMPIRE 1. series of origin myths a. Pacariqtambo version 1. emergence from three caves in Paruro region 2. 60 km south of Cuzco 3. many adventures on way to Cuzco b. Lake Titicaca version: Isle of the Sun 1. also emergence from caves 2. and travels north 2. unresolved conflict between documents and archaeology for formation of empire a. historical view: Inkas expanded beyond the Cuzco Valley and established their control over the Andes in less than a century 1. starting AD 1438 2. major conquests after 1463 3. polity was an extraordinary, but ultimately fragile, formation that lasted but a few lifetimes b. radiocarbon: empire lasted much longer than the histories grant 1. Inka state began to emerge as a regional power in 14th century 2. evidence for Inka presence throughout Andes in first half of 15th century 3. historical sequence worked out by Cabello Valboa: Miscelanea Anártica [1586] a. provisionally accepted by Rowe (1946) b. widely accepted: virtual canon 4. list of Inka emperors: starts mythically a. Manqo Qhapaq Sinchi Roq’a 2
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Lace Yupanki Mayta Qhapaq Qhapaq Yupanki Yawar Waqaq Wiraqocha Inka
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