China2007Lec2Shang

China2007Lec2Shang - RISE OF CIVILIZATION[China2007Lec2...

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1 R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [China2007Lec2.doc] March 22, 2007 C HINESE C IVILIZATION II: S HANG C IVILIZATION ©Terence N. D’Altroy [Sources: Wenke 1990; Chang 1980, 1986; de Montmollin lecture notes; Shelach 1994; Yates 1997] 1. first civilizations: 2,000-1,100 BC a. traditionally referred to as era of the “Three Dynasties” Dynasty 3 = Chou 1100 BC - AD 220 Dynasty 2 = Shang 1800 - 1100 BC Dynasty 1 = Erh-li-t’ou (Hsia) 2200/2000 - 1800 BC 1. note temporal overlap between dynasties 2. early Shang interacts with Erh-li-t’ou 3. proto-Chou interacts with late Shang 2. Shang period: 1800-1100 BC a. Second Dynasty: first civilization b. main cultural features become established 1. Chinese writing 2. architecture 3. cities 4. art, ideology S HANG C IVILIZATION 1. heartland: Yellow River region a. shifts a bit to the east b. two major phases Phase Dates (BC) Capital Yin 1400-1100 An-yang (Yin) Erh-li-kang 1800-1400 Cheng-chou 1. 1400 BC break: somewhat arbitrary 2. but contemporaneous written documents became important a. oracle bone inscriptions c. emphasis here on second phase: better known 2. historical origins of Shang civilizations a. T’ang vanquished last king of Hsia: named Chieh [China 2: Shang Civilization] 1
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1. Hsia capital located at Chen-hsün a. thought to be in northwestern Honan b. between Yen-shih and Shang-ch’iu b. T’ang founded royal capital at Po 1. location in dispute 2. thought to be located in eastern Honan: near Po-hsien c. set up additional capital cities 1. all also called Po 2. including Hsi Po: near Yen-shih (vanquished Hsia capital) 3. long dynastic history a. 29 kings after T’ang b. capital moved 5 times 1. Hsaio, Hsiang, Keng, Pi, and Yen c. finally to Yin S ETTLEMENT AND POPULATION 1. Shang state territory: large section of central China a. multiple early capitals 1. hypothetical locations established by archaeologists b best-known: An-Yang 1. ancient Yin: i.e., second half of Shang 2. excavations: 1926-1938 3. continuous excavations since 1950 2. urban development a. no enormous cities b. but concentration of population 1. in walled settlements: esp. in Late Shang 2. and nearby c. royal capitals moved several times: see above 1. 5 moves in Cheng-chou phase 2. Yin phase: begins with move of royal capital by king P’an-keng in 1384 BC a. from Yen to Yin: known archaeologically as An-yang 3. Cheng-chou: western, early Shang a. phase known from wide area b. 4 sites with stamped-earth enclosure known: e.g., Cheng-chou itself 1. wall: similar to Lung-shan construction c. but great similarities to later An-yang 1. construction technology 2. palatial structures 3. overall pattern of urban settlement [China 2: Shang Civilization] 2
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d. features found in An-yang: still unknown in Cheng-chou phase sites 1. writing 2. chariots 3. royal mausoleums 4. An-Yang: form of dispersed urbanism a. early example of Chinese city planning 1. Wheatley: emphasizes layouts and functions as civic-ceremonial centers b. main complex: large ceremonial and administrative center
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH V1008 taught by Professor D'altroy during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.

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China2007Lec2Shang - RISE OF CIVILIZATION[China2007Lec2...

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