1 it is a transitory state not permanent by its

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Unformatted text preview: of pain o Absence of pain is also what he calls the “state of nature” Models of Pain and Pleasure Pain  normal state  pleasure Pain  pleasure normal state “Pleasure” is not worth pursuing ­ Why? 1) it is a transitory state, not permanent by its nature 2) there is no pleasure without proportionate pain beforehand Objection: But can’t we go directly to pleasure from the normal or natural state? does pleasure have to be ephemeral? Razi seems to have three arguments against this objection: 1) 1) Humans become habituated to pleasure therefore, it can not be a permanent state 2) human physique is not made for pleasure  see contrast with animals 3) Humans can not experience pure, unadulterated pleasure, as animals do So far, Razi’s ethical theory rests mainly on the nature of pain and pleasure. o His conclusions are based on human nature, worldly experience o Why doesn’t he base his ethical theory on religious principles? o He also defends his ethical ideas based on the nature of the soul and after life Human soul is divided into three parts: Rational, Choleric and appetitive Each part has a deficiency and an excess: o Appetitive deficiency: refraining from food and drink o Appetitive excess: pursuit of pleasure o Choleric deficiency: lack of pride and courage o Choleric deficiency: love of domination o Rational deficiency: lack of wonder and reflection o Rational excess: complete absorption in thought, neglecting food and sleep, leads to depression Spiritual medicine seeks to equilibrate parts of the soul: o To become virtuous, rational soul should curb appetitive soul using choleric soul o This is the same process of reining passion that he has already discussed o This leads to his explanation of reward and punishment in afterlife...
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