China2007Lec3ChouQin

China2007Lec3ChouQin - RISE OF CIVILIZATION March 27, 2007...

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1 R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [China2007Lec3.doc] March 27, 2007 C HINESE C IVILIZATION III T HE E MERGENCE OF I MPERIAL C HINA : C HOU AND Q IN ©Terence N. D’Altroy [Sources: Service 1975; Wenke 1990; Chang 1980, 1986; Waldron 1990; de Montmollin lecture notes; Yates 1997] 1. Chou a. started out like Shang 1. ended in proto-imperial situation b. Western Chou: 1100-771 BC 1. early heartland 2. 1100 BC: Chou conquered Shang c. Eastern Chou: 771-256 BC 1. center shifted into old Shang heartland 2. pressure from northern nomads? d. toward end: diminished Chou dynasty met increased competition from other states e. resulted in Warring States period: 400-220 BC f. 256 BC 1. supplanted by Qin dynasty 2. Qin a. origins of the Chinese empire b. imperial form established by the Qin dynasty 1. by ruler: Qin Shi Huang Li 2. analogous to Egyptian political regime a. sacred pharaoh b. who united Upper and Lower Egypt c. imperial organization endured to early part of 20th century 1. at least as ideal: if not in practice 3. Han a. first consolidation of empire b. consolidated Qin dynasty system c. then Han dynasty broke down 1. lost control over a unified China 4. Three States period a. China divided into 3 large states b. for about 400 years 5. Tang dynasty a. AD 618-900 [China 3: Chou, Qin] 1
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b. period of reunification c. marked start of long-term cycle 1. centralization 2. followed by decentralization C HOU : K EY F EATURES R EGIONAL S ETTLEMENT O RGANIZATION 1. Yellow River Valley: conceptual center of four quarters a. Chou texts: area called the “middle states” 1. referring to their own state and its close neighbors b. surrounding populations: 4 sets of disdained peoples 1. e.g., tattooed 2. wore skins 3. lived in caves c. archaeological assessment: outside heartland 1. less widely studied than heartland 2. technology comparable 3. lacked writing 4. had own trajectories of development 5. intensive interaction with heartland a. core-periphery-perimeter d. 1. chronic problem: sometimes superior militarily 2. considered culturally inferior 2. royal Chou capitals a. layout followed canons of ancient Chinese urbanism 1. i.e., capital as the pivot of the 4 quarters b. walled civic-ceremonial precinct 1. surrounded by scatter of residential and craft wards c. shifting capitals: like Shang 1. Western Chou: Chou, Ch'eng, Feng, Hao, Cheng a. Hao: base for conquest of Shang ca. 1100 BC 2. Eastern Chou: Lo-yang (Lo-yi??) in 771 BC d. some older capitals: remain as sacred centers 1. e.g., Chou 2. new capital would function as the king's administrative center 3. outcome difficult to assess archaeologically a. scatter of similar important centers b. status shifts through time [China 3: Chou, Qin] 2
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E CONOMY 1. agriculture a. great irrigation works: appeared late, 500 BC b. tied to growing importance of wet rice agriculture 1. Yangtze Basin 2. beginnings of hydraulic state 2. craft production a. emergence of Iron Age 1. widespread after ca. 500 BC 2. different technology from earliest Near Eastern iron working
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH V1008 taught by Professor D'altroy during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.

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China2007Lec3ChouQin - RISE OF CIVILIZATION March 27, 2007...

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