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Theory_Lec_2_2007 - THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION\Rise of Civ...

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1    T HE  R ISE   OF  C IVILIZATION     [\Rise of Civ 2007\Theory_Lec _2_2007.wpd] January 23, 2007 T. D'Altroy E XPLANATORY  M ODELS   OF  S OCIAL  E VOLUTION     ©  Terence N. D’Altroy Fried's model 1. egalitarian society a. age and sex are used to differentiate members of society b. with classes of people, status is gained through achievement c. there are as many positions of status as there are people to fill them d. almost exclusively hunting and gathering bands e. production is at the family level 1. unspecialized f. exchange is informal and reciprocal 2. rank society a. limited access to valued status 1. access based only indirectly on sex, age, or personal attributes b. there are fewer positions of status than there are people to fill them c. there is an increase in productivity through specialization 3. stratified society a. institutionalized differential relationships among its members in subsistence b. some members of society have unimpeded access to strategic resources c. requires more formal means of communication and regulation 1. legal code and mechanisms to adjudicate and enforce rules d. kinship no longer key 1. territorial groups are most important e. increasingly complex division of labor is facilitated 4. state society not clearly defined by Fried a. key transformations are seen as having occurred at stratified level b. state is seen as inevitable and rapid outcome of stratification c. state exists as a means to ensure the privileged status of society's elites Service's model 1. band a. hunting and gathering groups b. 30-100 people c. kin-related d. sex and age are the primary social determinants e. political organization and economic organization are absent f. ceremonies are ad hoc g. modern examples: Australian aborigines, !Kung San, Eskimo, Paiute, Shoshone 2. tribe a. distinguished by techniques used to integrate local groups into a larger society -1-
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1. clans, associations, sodalities, secret societies b. generally remain in Fried's egalitarian classification 1. horizontally integrated, not vertically 2. that is, not hierarchical in links between groups c. agricultural economies d. no well-developed specialized craft groups 1. no highly organized trade e. no hierarchy in importance of settlements f. integration: ceremonies and rituals, frequently on a calendrical basis g. cycles tend to 1. help maintain undegraded environments 2. limit intergroup raiding 3. adjust human-land ratios 4. facilitate trade 5. redistribute natural resources 6. level differences in wealth h. modern examples: Pueblo Indians of US southwest; New Guinea highlanders i. probably first developed during the early post-Pleistocene j. evidenced in the archaeological record by 1. saving ancestors' skulls 2. accumulation of fancy goods with burials
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