Indus2007Lec2

Indus2007Lec2 - RISE OF CIVILIZATION March 6 2007 MATURE...

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1 R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [\Indus2007Lec2.wpd] March 6, 2007 T. D'Altroy M ATURE H ARAPPAN C IVILIZATION © Terence N. D’Altroy (sources: same as preceding lecture) 1. 2550-1900 BC a. Urban Phase b. maximum development for the Harappan civilization c. best evidence 1. large cities and towns 2. well established: 2300-2200 BC 2. regional settlement patterns a. disagreement over nature of regional organization 1. 800+ Mature Harappan sites known b. view #1: well-defined hierarchies likely (Wright) 1. three major cities: well-spaced a. Mohenjo-daro b. Harappa c. Ganwariwala 2. at least two or three size categories for sites 3. and planning replication: at different levels in the size hierarchy 4. at least 4 different size categories a. 4 administrative levels b. ergo: state level of administration c. view #2: hierarchy not so clearly defined (Possehl) 1. 3 largest sites: 80-85 ha range 2. gap: then next level at 50 ha 3. terms it two-level pattern a. but could include more at lower end d. total population for state: 200,000 1. surprisingly small 2. esp. for 1.3 million sq km 3. Mesoamerica: 5-10 million people for equal area 3. single or multiple polities? a. evidence for single polity 1. striking degree of material culture uniformity a. over a huge area 2. implies unified control b. evidence for multiple polities 1. Possehl: more diversity than previously earlier thought 1
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2. 2-3 roughly equally-sized cities 3. independent centers? a. confederation? c. problem as yet unresolved 1. lacking: political monuments and buildings 2. deciphered script 4. settlement and population research a. focus: larger settlements 1. now changing b. major cities 1. Mohenjo-daro: excavated and mapped 2. Harappa: ditto 3. Ganwariwala (?) 4. Rakhigarhi (?) M OHENJO - DARO 1. studied by John Marshall: 1922-1931 a. size 1. 250 ha 2. about 40,000 people b. reflects Harappan urban plan 1. standardized layout and architecture 2. similar to other major cities 3. and smaller centers 4. uniformity: major distinction from other civilizations a. although note uniformity in Egyptian pyramid sites c. two main sectors: often called Harappan urban plan 1. civic zone: or upper citadel 2. residential zone: or lower town -------- 3. Kenoyer (1991): plans are not so regularly organized from site to site 2. citadel a. on west side b. surrounded by fortifications c. public/civic architecture d. raised area: separated by open ground from the lower town e. various public or civic buildings 1. Great Bath 2. granaries: disagreement over interpretation a. e.g., presence of cremated bones found in association with "threshing floors" b. buildings perhaps better interpreted as a temple 2
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3. meeting halls 4. barracks f. emphasis on mundane purposes for architecture 1. esp. granaries a. possible storage: crop surpluses b. redistributive state? 2. payoff for commoners' investments
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH V1008 taught by Professor D'altroy during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.

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Indus2007Lec2 - RISE OF CIVILIZATION March 6 2007 MATURE...

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