Mesoamerica_Lec2_Oaxaca_2007

Mesoamerica_Lec2_Oaxaca_2007 - RISE OF CIVILIZATION April...

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1R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [\Mesoamerica Lec2 Oaxaca 2007.doc] April 3, 2007 T. D'Altroy M ESOAMERICA II : T HE V ALLEY OF O AXACA © Terence N. D’Altroy [sources: Blanton et al. 1993; Wenke and Olszewski 2006; de Montmollin class notes; Marcus 1992; McCafferty and McCafferty 1993, 1994; Flannery and Marcus 1994; Marcus and Flannery 1994] 1. rise of civilization in Oaxaca a. ethnic/linguistic region 1. Zapotec 2. Mixtec b. geographic focus: Valley of Oaxaca 1. south-central highlands c. early source of power in highlands d. well-studied archaeologically 1. heavy emphasis on survey 2. 2,300 km 2 covered 3. excavations at Monte Albán 2. basic chronological sequence a. Early Formative 1. simple organization 2. Tierras Largas phase: 1400-1150 BC b. late Early Formative 1. chiefdom 2. San José phase: 1150-850 BC c. Middle Formative 1. increasingly complex chiefdoms 2. Guadalupe-Rosario phase: 850-500 d. Late Formative: first state 1. Monte Albán I: 500-200 BC 2. Monte Albán II: 200 BC - AD 300 3. first city e. Classic period: AD 300-750 1. elaboration of state 2. and urban society f. Terminal Classic 1. collapse of Zapotec state: ca. AD 750 2. breakup into multiple polities 3. de Montmollin calls them statelets 1
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3. highlight formation and nature of Zapotec state a. and urban capital: Monte Albán Environmental setting 1. Valley lies in center of large mountainous zone a. southern highlands b. agricultural advantages significant: in comparison to neighboring areas 1. 1,500 km 2 of arable land 2. greatest expanse in region c. elevation: 1,500 m above msl 1. frost relatively rare 2. semiarid climate a. water: critical determinant of maize yields b. 400-800 mm of annual rainfall: 15.7-31.5" 1. maize: requires about 700 mm c. good year: rains will support single crop 1. wet season: June-October d. supplementary water sources 1. insure crop 2. make multiple crops possible 3. types a. high water table: capillary action b. pot irrigation c. local damming of tributary streams: simple irrigation d. draining of freshwater marshes: needed coordinated action 3. agriculture a. basic infield-outfield system b. valley bottom and lower piedmont 1. intensive agriculture c. irrigation 1. simple pot and canal irrigation a. largely for risk reduction 2. never a hydraulic state d. valley slopes: more extensive swidden agriculture 4. other resources a. generally widely available throughout southern highlands 1. e.g., wood 2. pottery clay 3. salt 2
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4. building stone 5. decorative mica b. key imports 1. obsidian 2. prestige materials: cacao, feathers, marine shells, turquoise, jade, maybe gold 5. Valley form: three subvalleys a. N: Etla 1. narrow and dry 2. but best possibilities for irrigation b. S: Valle Grande 1. most extensive: most arable land 2. more rain: dry farming more productive 3. decent yield: 2/3 yrs c. E: Tlacolula 1. poorest rainfall and irrigation potential 2. decent yield: 1/3 yrs C HRONOLOGICAL D EVELOPMENT Tierras Largas Phase 1. 1500 BC a. farming villages throughout Valley
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Mesoamerica_Lec2_Oaxaca_2007 - RISE OF CIVILIZATION April...

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