Mesopotamia2007Lec2

Mesopotamia2007Lec2 - THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION January 30,...

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1 T HE R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [\Mesopotamia2007Lec2.wpd] January 30, 2007 S TATE F ORMATION , P T . 1: ‘U BAID AND U RUK © Terence N. D’Altroy [main sources: Redman 1978; Henrickson and Thuesen 1989; Postgate 1992; de Montmollin 1992 lecture notes; van de Mieroop 1992; Hole 1994; Nemet-Nejat; Pollack 1999; Wenke 1999] 1. main points of lecture today a. continue discussion of formation of complex society in Mesopotamia b. look at transition 1. from pre-state complex chiefdom: 'Ubaid 2. to formation of first state: Uruk 2. major trends a. settlement/demography 1. filling in of alluvium 2. bigger settlements: towns start hierarchy b. economy 1. specialization and diversification a. finer luxury artifacts 2. seals as property markers c. integration 1. horizon styles for painted ceramics d. social differentiation 1. mortuary variations 2. emergence of secular elite e. ideology 1. temples 2. centralized community worship 3. by Uruk: formal priesthood 3. keep in mind: boom and bust cycle a. not a smooth transition to state society b. local growth and collapse 1. e.g., on Susa Plain of SW Iran: one site of 15 ha by 4300 BC 'U BAID C ULTURE 1. dates a. standard: 5300-3600 BC b. recently revised: 6000-4100 BC 1. i.e.,'Ubaid 0 contemporary with early Halaf in north Mesopotamia c. continued up to 400 yrs longer in Susiana and Zagros than in Mesopotamia 1
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2. major changes a. shift toward real cultural differentiation in several regions 1. Sumer 2. Assyria 3. Zagros foothills? 4. Zagros valleys? 5. Khuzistan (Susiana Plain) 6. Anatolia b. first real occupation of Sumer 1. takeoff point for state 3. occupational sequence a. early overlap with 1. Samarran 2. Halafian b. 'Ubaid 0 1. now thought to be earliest occupation of lower alluvium c. 6000 BC onwards: Assyria d. 5500 BC onwards: Sumer e. gradient corresponds to increasing degrees of difficulty in making a living with only simple rainfall based agriculture 4. ecological conditions on alluvium quite different from those today a. head of the Gulf probably close to the Ur-Eridu region b. may have made southern alluvium shoreline attractive 1. rich natural resources in marshy environment 2. e.g., fish, waterbirds, marsh-dwelling animals, reeds c. inland: agriculture may have depended on flood waters d. heavy reliance on pigs and cattle 1. animals that prefer moist conditions e. debate over environmental conditions 1. Nissen: much of the land was underwater a. permitted only island-like occupations 2. Adams: irrigation farming supported towns and villages on dry land f. overall: probably a lot of local adaptations to diverse environmental conditions 5. settlement patterns and demography a. settlement evidence: fragmentary 1. alluviation, deep soundings b. Eridu: most important site 1. Terminal 'Ubaid: 3900-3600 BC a. maybe 10 ha: more than a village b. 2-4,000 people c. patterning more nucleated in southern Sumer 2
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1. Eridu, Ur region 2. more dispersed in Uruk region: mean site size about 4 ha d. almost all major settlements fortified: by end of 'Ubaid
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH V1008 taught by Professor D'altroy during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.

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Mesopotamia2007Lec2 - THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION January 30,...

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