Theory_1_2007

Theory_1_2007 - 1THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION Anthropology...

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1 T HE R ISE OF C IVILIZATION [\Rise of Civ 2007\Theory 1 2007 .wpd] Anthropology V1008y Prof. Terence D'Altroy January 18, 2007 T HEORY 1: M ODELS OF S OCIETIES (© Terence N. D’Altroy) 1. main points of this lecture and the next a. begin to look at explanations for the formation of complex society in prehistory b. start with conceptions of different kinds of societies c. look at perspectives on how transformations occurred 1. diffusionism 2. culture history 3. cultural evolution d. modern models 1. prime mover models 2. multivariate models Conceptions of Civilization 1. what is civilization ?: multiple conceptions a. civilization as us : ethnocentric 1. e.g., two cities of 1500 a. #1 [Tenochtitlán]: clustered metropolis of 150,000 people at center of state with maybe 10,000,000 people 1. sophisticated water management systems: irrigation and waste control 2. complex markets and money 3. massive investment of resources in religious and other public works b. #2 [London]: city of about 100,000-150,000 ruling a geographically marginal island at frequent war with its neighbors 1. water-borne and vermin-borne disease rampant 2. e.g., 1850: Chinese viewed Koreans as uncivilized a. Koreans viewed Japanese as even worse b. Japanese saw Americans and Europeans as utterly barbaric c. British and Americans, of course, brought civilization to the heathens b. civilization as an achievement 1. e.g., notions of progress and directionality 1
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2. increases in knowledge: esp. technology a. common modern Western viewpoint b. most recently exemplified in Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel 3. institution of morality in society c. grades into civilization as a condition : or set of attributes 1. something to be aspired to 2. as a superior situation 2. Childe's criteria (as partitioned by Redman 1978) a. primary characteristics 1. size and density of cities a. the great enlargement of an organized population meant a much wider level of social integration 2. full-time specialization of labor a. specialization of production among workers was institutionalized b. as were systems of distribution and exchange 3. concentration of surplus a. there were social means for the collection and management of the surplus production of farmers and artisans 4. class -structured society a. a privileged ruling class or religious, political, and military functionaries organized and directed the society 5. state organization a. well-structured political organization with membership based on residence b. this replaced political identification based on kinship
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH V1008 taught by Professor D'altroy during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.

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Theory_1_2007 - 1THE RISE OF CIVILIZATION Anthropology...

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