Exam 3 History Notes - Thesis(American Culture 1836-1860 reached the end of one long stage of its development came of age became something uniquely

Exam 3 History Notes - Thesis(American Culture 1836-1860...

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Thesis (American Culture 1836-1860) reached the end of one long stage of its development came of age became something uniquely American Important Components of American Culture at Mid-Century American Sense of Mission Revivalistic Protestantism Localism and Nationalism Hamiltonian Federalism and Jeffersonian Republicanism Foreign Policy Based on Realism Democracy and Individualism Racism and Slavery Expansionism Important Characteristics of American Culture at Mid-Century #1 PATRIOTISM – love of country Most popular symbol – American eagle Most important hero – George Washington Greatest patriotic ceremony – 4thof July #2 AMERICAN NATIONALISM Later, Southern Nationalism would compete. #3 AGGRESSIVENESS By individuals By nation Example: Mexican War #4 RELIGION or Religiosity Most Americans were Protestants Many Protestants frightened by non-Protestant immigrants o Nativist movement o Know-Nothing Party Strong emphasis on revivalism #5 OPTIMISM Most believed in idea of progress – bound to improve Generated reform movements Efforts to Restrict Immigration and Deny Roman Catholics full citizenship rights U.S. Population: Between 1830 and 1860 the population went from 12.9 million to 31.5 million U.S. still sparsely settled and short of workers – not enough men and women to meet labor requirements of cities and farms Increase in European immigration mostly from northern and western Europe helped Many immigrants were unskilled, illiterate, and poor – had hard time settling in new country – but overcame problems Were valuable additions to U.S., but many Americans opposed their coming
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Concerns of Nativists Nativists concerned because immigrants: Came in such large numbers Didn’t speak English; had strange customs Threatened to pollute old Anglo-Saxon stock Increased crime and pauperism Burdened public funds and private charities Were “undesirables” exported by Europe Lowered wages by working for less Voted Democrat Were Roman Catholics Immigrants sacred US citizens *Strongest forces against immigrants/nativist movement = religious prejudice/anti- Roman Catholicism Know-Nothings Began in 1840s as secret, anti-foreign, anti-immigrant societies. Came together in 1850s to establish the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner" popularly known as "Know-Nothings" Purposes: defend Protestantism against Catholicism restrict immigration make it harder to become a naturalized citizen deprive aliens of right to vote *Sworn to secrecy; refused to answer questions to non-members *Wanted to defend Protestants against Catholicism and make immigrant laws tougher American Party (previously Know Nothings) Know-Nothings formed own national political party in 1856 -- the American Party.
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