Lecture- England's Revolutionary Era - Lecture England's...

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Lecture: England's Revolutionary Era QUESTION: Were the British Civil Wars or the Glorious Revolution more historically significant? Background: 17thC England internationally irrelevant no real empire yet seen as small, insignificant island poor throne had no standing army expected to live off the land, customs duties, and extraordinary grants of taxation (during war) undemocratic Parliament is not a permanent institution called at the King's will and dissolved when he sees fit King is pinnacle of hierarchical system House of Lords is patrimony House of Commons (technically elected, but most are default/sole choices) but not absolutist Parliament has pursestrings refuses to allow general taxation by the monarchy prerogative: King can act outside the law in specific circumstances common law: by precedents, customs of the land, cannot be altered unilaterally by the King means crown is part of system, not above it protestant Calvinist reject the Pope as head of Church, less ceremonial, less hierarchical in direct opposition to the Catholic Church anti-Popery (think Titus Oates) The British Civil Wars (1642-1648) causes long-term process whereby a monarchy that wants to be absolute (arbitrary, not follow laws of land) fights with constitutionalists (getting rid of prerogatives) and loses revisionist account long-term crown insolvency modes for financing crown didn't adapt to its growing power and actions religion England is protestant, so it must undergo a reformation, deciding all the factors of the new Church much debate about how ceremonial they should be and how much hierarchy it should have ideology
rights of crown vis-a-vis Parliament problem of prerogatives debates about extent of monarchy's control and extra-legal privileges short-term Charles I

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